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What, exactly, constitutes something living, which makes it different from something nonliving This has been one of the great questions of science throughout history. In some cultures, life is ascribed to things that Americans think of as inanimate. One definition of artificial life involves the ability of a human-made thing to reproduce itself. Suppose you were to synthesize a new kind of molecule in a beaker and
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Quiz 665 named it QNA (which stands for some weird name nobody can ever remember). Suppose this molecule, like DNA, could make replicas of itself, so that when you put one of them in a glass of water, you d have a whole glassful in a few days. This molecule would be artificial life, in the sense that it could reproduce and that it was made by humans, rather than by nature in general. You might build a robot that could assemble other robots like itself. The machine would also be artificial life according to the above definition. It would, of course, be far different from the QNA molecule in terms of size and environment. But reproduction ability is the basis for the definition. The QNA molecule and the self-replicating robot both meet the definition. A truly self-replicating robot hasn t yet been developed. Society is a long way from having to worry that robots might build copies of themselves and take over the whole planet. But artificially living robots might be possible from a technological standpoint. Robots would probably reproduce by merely assembling other robots similar to themselves. Robots could also build machines much different from themselves individually. It s interesting to think of the ways in which artificially living machine populations might evolve. Another definition for artificial life involves thought processes. At what point does machine intelligence become consciousness Can a machine ever be aware of its own existence, and be able to ponder its place in the universe, the way a human being can The reproduction question is answerable by an either/or, but the consciousness question can be endlessly debated. One person might say that all computers are fully conscious; another person could point out that a sizable proportion of the human population, at any given time, is semiconscious or unconscious. In the end, questions like this might not matter much. As long as smart robots obey Asimov s three laws, the issue of whether or not they are living beings will most likely take second place to more pragmatic concerns.
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Refer to the text in this chapter if necessary. A good score is 18 correct. Answers are in the back of the book. 1. An android takes the form of: A. An insect. B. A human body. C. A simple robot arm. D. Binocular vision. 2. According to Asimov s three laws, under what circumstances is it all right for a robot to injure a human being A. Never. B. When the human being specifically requests it. C. In case of an accident. D. In case the robot controller is infected with a computer virus.
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666 Robotics and artificial intelligence 3. Second-generation robots first were used around the year: A. 1950. B. 1960. C. 1970. D. 1980. 4. The extent to which a machine vision system can differentiate between two objects is called the: A. Magnification. B. Sensitivity. C. Selectivity. D. Resolution. 5. An automotive robot might best keep itself traveling down a specific lane of traffic by using: A. Binaural hearing. B. Epipolar navigation. C. Edge detection. D. A second-generation end effector. 6. A rule-based system is also known as: A. Artificial intelligence. B. An expert system. C. An analytical engine. D. An automated guided vehicle. 7. A robot that has its own computer, and can work independently of other robots or computers, is called an: A. Android. B. Insect robot. C. Automated guided vehicle. D. Autonomous robot. 8. A manipulator is also known as a: A. Track drive. B. Robot arm. C. Vision system. D. Robot controller. 9. An android is well suited for operation in: A. Extreme weather conditions. B. Total darkness. C. An assembly line. D. An environment with children.
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Quiz 667 10. Proximity sensing is most closely akin to: A. Direction measurement. B. Epipolar navigation. C. Distance measurement. D. Machine vision. 11. A telechir is used in conjunction with: A. An automated guided vehicle. B. Telepresence. C. An insect robot. D. An autonomous robot. 12. An absolute limit to the distance over which teleoperation is practical is imposed by: A. The speed of light. B. The image resolution of the vision system. C. The ability of a robot to determine texture. D. All of the above. 13. Rodney Brooks is best known for his work with: A. Epipolar navigation. B. Binocular vision. C. Range sensing and plotting. D. Insect robots. 14. An asset of epipolar navigation is the fact that it: A. Does not require binaural hearing. B. Does not require a computer. C. Can be done from a single observation frame. D. Requires no reference points at all. 15. Spherical coordinates can uniquely define the position of a point in up to: A. One dimension. B. Two dimensions. C. Three dimensions. D. Four dimensions. 16. The number of ways in which a robot arm can move is known as: A. Degrees of rotation. B. Degrees of freedom. C. Degrees of arc. D. Coordinate geometry.
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668 Robotics and artificial intelligence 17. The region throughout which a robot arm can accomplish tasks is called its: A. Coordinate geometry. B. Reference axis. C. Reference frame. D. Work envelope. 18. A robot arm that moves along three independent axes, each of which is straight and perpendicular to the other two, employs: A. Revolute geometry. B. Spherical coordinate geometry. C. Cartesian coordinate geometry. D. Cylindrical coordinate geometry. 19. A color vision system can use three gray-scale cameras, equipped with filters that allow which three colors of light to pass A. Blue, red, and yellow. B. Blue, red, and green. C. Cyan, magenta, and yellow. D. Orange, green, and violet. 20. A robot can determine the steepness of a slope using a(n): A. Epipolar navigation system. B. Clinometer. C. End effector. D. Manipulator.
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