Magnetism in Software

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The ampere-turn and the gilbert
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When working with electromagnets, another unit is employed. This is the ampere-turn (At). It is a unit of magnetomotive force. A wire, bent into a circle and carrying 1 A of current, will produce 1 At of magnetomotive force. If the wire is bent into a loop having 50 turns, and the current stays the same, the resulting magnetomotive force will be 50 At. If the current is then reduced to 1/50 A or 20 mA, the magnetomotive force will go back down to 1 At. The gilbert is also sometimes used to express magnetomotive force. This unit is equal to 0.796 At. Thus, to get ampere-turns from gilberts, multiply by 0.796; to get gilberts from ampere-turns, multiply by 1.26.
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A ferromagnetic core concentrates the lines of magnetic flux.
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Electromagnets are almost always cylindrical in shape. Sometimes the cylinder is long and thin; in other cases it is short and fat. But whatever the ratio of diameter to length for the core, the principle is always the same: the magnetic field produced by the current results in magnetization of the core.
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Direct-current types
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Electromagnets can use either direct or alternating current. The type with which you are probably familiar is the dc electromagnet. You can build a dc electromagnet by taking a large bolt, like a stove bolt, and wrapping a few dozen or a few hundred turns of wire around it. These items are available in almost any hardware store. Be sure the bolt is made of ferromagnetic material. (If a permanent magnet sticks to the bolt, the bolt is ferromagnetic.) Ideally, the bolt should be at least 3/8 inch in diameter and several inches long. You need to use insulated wire, preferably made of solid, soft copper. Bell wire works very well.
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Any electric current, or movement of charge carriers, produces a magnetic field. This field can become extremely intense in a tightly coiled wire having many turns, and that carries a large electric current. When a ferromagnetic core is placed inside the coil, the magnetic lines of flux are concentrated in the core, and the field strength in and near the core becomes tremendous. This is the principle of an electromagnet (Fig. 8-5).
Magnetic field strength 141 Just be sure all the wire turns go in the same direction. A large 6-V lantern battery can provide plenty of dc to work the electromagnet. Never leave the coil connected to the battery for more than a few seconds at a time. And never use a car battery for this experiment! (The acid might boil out.) Direct-current electromagnets have defined north and south poles, just like permanent magnets. The main difference is that an electromagnet can get much stronger than any permanent magnet. You should see evidence of this if you do the above experiment with a large enough bolt and enough turns of wire.
Aternating-current types
You might get the idea that the electromagnet can be made far stronger if, rather than using a lantern battery for the current source, you plug the wires into a wall outlet. In theory, this is true. In practice, you ll probably blow the fuse or circuit breaker. Do not try this. The electrical circuits in some buildings are not adequately protected and it can create a fire hazard. Also, you can get a lethal shock from the 117-V utility mains. Some electromagnets use ac, and these magnets will stick to ferromagnetic objects. But the polarity of the magnetic field reverses every time the direction of the current reverses. That means there are 120 fluctuations per second, or 60 complete north-to-south-to-north polarity changes (Fig. 8-6) every second. If a permanent magnet, or a dc electromagnet, is brought near either pole of an ac electromagnet, there will be no net force. This is because the poles will be alike half the time, and opposite half the time, producing an equal amount of attractive and repulsive force.
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