Permanent magnets in Software

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Permanent magnets
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Any ferromagnetic material, or substance whose atoms can be permanently aligned, can be made into a permanent magnet. These are the magnets you probably played with as a child. Some alloys can be made into stronger magnets than others. One alloy that is especially suited to making strong magnets is alnico. This word derives from the metals that comprise it: aluminum, nickel and cobalt. Other elements are often added, including copper and titanium. But any piece of iron or steel can be magnetized, at least to some extent. You might have used a screwdriver, for example,
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144 Magnetism that was magnetized, so that it could hold on to screws when installing or removing them from hard-to-reach places. Permanent magnets are best made from materials with high retentivity. Magnets are made by using a high-retentivity ferromagnetic material as the core of an electromagnet for an extended period of time. This experiment is not a good one to do at home with a battery, because there is a risk of battery explosion. If you want to magnetize a screwdriver a little bit so that it will hold onto screws, just stroke the shaft of the screwdriver with the end of a bar magnet several dozen times. But remember that once you have magnetized a tool, it is difficult to completely demagnetize it.
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The solenoid
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A cylindrical coil, having a movable ferromagnetic core, can be useful for various things. This is a solenoid. Electrical relays, bell ringers, electric hammers, and other mechanical devices make use of the principle of the solenoid.
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A ringer device
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Figure 8-7 is a simplified diagram of a bell ringer. Its solenoid is an electromagnet, except that the core is not completely solid, but has a hole going along its axis. The coil has several layers, but the wire is always wound in the same direction, so that the electromagnet is quite powerful. A movable steel rod runs through the hole in the electromagnet core.
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A solenoid-coil bell ringer.
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The dc motor 145 When there is no current flowing in the coil, the steel rod is held down by the force of gravity. But when a pulse of current passes through the coil, the rod is pulled forcibly upward so that it strikes the ringer plate. This plate is like one of the plates in a xylophone. The current pulse is short, so that the steel rod falls back down again to its resting position, allowing the plate to reverberate: Gonggg! Some office telephones are equipped with ringers that produce this noise, rather than the conventional ringing or electronic bleeping ernitted by most phone sets.
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A relay
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In some electronic devices, it is inconvenient to place a switch exactly where it should be. For example, you might want to switch a communications line from one branch to another from a long distance away. In many radio transmitters, the wiring carries high-frequency alternating currents that must be kept within certain parts of the circuit, and not routed out to the front panel for switching. A relay makes use of a solenoid to allow remote-control switching. A diagram of a relay is shown in Fig. 8-8. The movable lever, called the armature, is held to one side by a spring when there is no current flowing through the electromagnet. Under these conditions, terminal X is connected to Y, but not to Z. When a sufficient current is applied, the armature is pulled over to the other side. This disconnects terminal X from terminal Y, and connects X to Z. There are numerous types of relays used for different purposes. Some are meant for use with dc, and others are for ac; a few will work with either type of current. A normally closed relay completes the circuit when there is no current flowing in its electromagnet, and breaks the circuit when current flows. A normally open relay is just the opposite. ( Normal in this sense means no current in the coil.) The relay in the illustration (Fig. 8-8) can be used either as a normally open or normally closed relay, depending on which contacts are selected. It can also be used to switch a line between two different circuits. Some relays have several sets of contacts. Some relays are meant to remain in one state (either with current or without) for a long time, while others are meant to switch several times per second. The fastest relays work dozens of times per second. These are used for such purposes as keying radio transmitters in Morse code or radioteletype.
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