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9-14 Two forms of ac generator. At A, the magnet rotates; at B, the coil rotates.
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When a load, such as a light bulb or heater, is connected to an ac generator, it becomes more difficult to turn the generator. The more power needed from a generator, the greater the amount of power required to drive it. This is why it is not possible to connect a generator to, for instance, your stationary bicycle, and pedal an entire city into electrification. There s no way to get something for nothing. The electrical power that comes out of a generator can never be more than the mechanical power driving it. In fact, there is always some energy lost, mainly as heat in the generator. Your legs might generate 50 W of power to run a small radio, but nowhere near enough to provide electricity for a household. The efficiency of a generator is the ratio of the power output to the driving power, both measured in the same units (such as watts or kilowatts), multiplied by 100 to get a percentage. No generator is 100 percent efficient. But a good one can come fairly close to this ideal. At power plants, the generators are huge. Each one is as big as a house. The generators are driven by massive turbines. The turbines are turned by various natural
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178 Alternating current basics sources of energy. Often, steam drives the turbines, and the steam is obtained via heat derived from the natural energy source.
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You might wonder why ac is even used. Isn t it a lot more complicated than dc Well, ac is easy to generate from turbines, as you ve just seen. Rotating coil-and magnet devices always produce ac, and in order to get dc from this, rectification and filtering are necessary. These processes can be difficult to achieve with high voltages. Alternating current lends itself well to being transformed to lower or higher voltages, according to the needs of electrical apparatus. It is not so easy to change dc voltages. Electrochemical cells produce dc directly, but they are impractical for the needs of large populations. To serve millions of consumers, the immense power of falling or flowing water, the ocean tides, wind, burning fossil fuels, safe nuclear fusion, or of geothermal heat are needed. (Nuclear fission will work, but it is under scrutiny nowadays because it produces dangerous radioactive by-products.) All of these energy sources can be used to drive turbines that turn ac generators. Technology is advancing in the realm of solar-electric energy; someday a significant part of our electricity might come from photovoltaic power plants. These would generate dc. Thomas Edison is said to have favored dc over ac for electrical power transmission in the early days, as utilities were first being planned. His colleagues argued that ac would work better. It took awhile to convince Mr. Edison to change his mind. He eventually did. But perhaps he knew something that his contemporaries did not foresee. There is one advantage to direct current in utility applications. This is for the transmission of energy over great distances using wires. Direct currents, at extremely high voltages, are transported more efficiently than alternating currents. The wire has less effective resistance with dc than with ac, and there is less energy lost in the magnetic fields around the wires. Direct-current high-tension transmission lines are being considered for future use. Right now, the main problem is expense. Sophisticated power-conversion equipment is needed. If the cost can be brought within reason, Edison s original sentiments will be at least partly vindicated. His was a long view.
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Refer to the text in this chapter if necessary. A good score is at least 18 correct. Answers are in the back of the book. 1. Which of the following can vary with ac, but not with dc A. Power. B. Voltage. C. Frequency. D. Magnitude.
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Quiz 179 2. The length of time between a point in one cycle and the same point in the next cycle of an ac wave is the: A. Frequency. B. Magnitude. C. Period. D. Polarity. 3. On a spectrum analyzer, a pure ac signal, having just one frequency component,would look like: A. A single pip. B. A perfect sine wave. C. A square wave. D. A sawtooth wave. 4. The period of an ac wave is: A. The same as the frequency. B. Not related to the frequency. C. Equal to 1 divided by the frequency. D. Equal to the amplitude divided by the frequency. 5. The sixth harmonic of an ac wave whose period is 0.001 second has a frequency of A. 0.006 Hz. B. 167 Hz. C. 7 kHz. D. 6 kHz. 6. A degree of phase represents: A. 6.28 cycles. B. 57.3 cycles. C. 1/6.28 cycle. D. 1/360 cycle. 7. Two waves have the same frequency but differ in phase by 1/20 cycle. The phase difference in degrees is: A. 18. B. 20. C. 36. D. 5.73. 8. A signal has a frequency of 1770 Hz. The angular frequency is: A. 1770 radians per second.
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180 Alternating current basics B. 11,120 radians per second. C. 282 radians per second. D. Impossible to determine from the data given. 9. A triangular wave: A. Has a fast rise time and a slow decay time. B. Has a slow rise time and a fast decay time. C. Has equal rise and decay rates. D. Rises and falls abruptly. 10. Three-phase ac: A. Has waves that add up to three times the originals. B. Has three waves, all of the same magnitude. C. Is what you get at a common wall outlet. D. Is of interest only to physicists.
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12. If two waves have the same frequency and the same phase, the composite wave: A. Has a magnitude equal to the difference between the two originals. B. Has a magnitude equal to the sum of the two originals. C. Is complex, with the same frequency as the originals. D. Is zero. 13. In a 117-V utility circuit, the peak voltage is: A. 82.7 V. B. 165 V. C. 234 V. D. 331 V. 14. In a 117-V utility circuit, the pk-pk voltage is: A. 82.7 V. B. 165 V. C. 234 V. D. 331 V.
11. If two waves have the same frequency and the same amplitude, but opposite phase, the composite wave is: A. Twice the amplitude of either wave alone. B. Half the amplitude of either wave alone. C. A complex waveform, but with the same frequency as the originals. D. Zero.
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