barcode printing using vb.net Capacitance in Software

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CHAPTER
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Capacitance
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ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS CAN OPPOSE AC IN THREE DIFFERENT WAYS, TWO OF which you ve learned about already. Resistance slows down the rate of transfer of charge carriers (usually electrons) by brute force. In this process, some of the energy is invariably converted from electrical form to heat. Resistance is said to consume power for this reason. Resistance is present in dc as well as in ac circuits, and works the same way for either direct or alternating current. Inductance impedes the flow of ac charge carriers by temporarily storing the energy as a magnetic field. But this energy is given back later. Capacitance, about which you ll learn in this chapter, impedes the flow of ac charge carriers by temporarily storing the energy as an electric field. This energy is given back later, just as it is in an inductance. Capacitance is not generally important in pure-dc circuits. It can have significance in circuits where dc is pulsating, and not steady. Capacitance, like inductance, can appear when it is not wanted or intended. As with inductance, this effect tends to become more evident as the ac frequency increases.
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The property of capacitance
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Imagine two very large, flat sheets of metal such as copper or aluminum, that are excellent electrical conductors. Suppose they are each the size of the state of Nebraska, and are placed one over the other, separated by just a foot of space. What will happen if these two sheets of metal are connected to the terminals of a battery, as shown in Fig. 11-1 The two plates will become charged electrically, one positively and the other negatively. You might think that this would take a little while, because the sheets are so big. This is an accurate supposition. If the plates were small, they would both become charged almost instantly, attaining a relative voltage equal to the voltage of the battery. But because the plates are gigantic,
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200 Capacitance
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11-1
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A huge pair of parallel plates illustrates the principle of capacitance. See text.
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it will take awhile for the negative one to fill up with electrons, and it will take an equal amount of time for the other one to get electrons sucked out. Finally, however, the voltage between the two plates will be equal to the battery voltage, and an electric field will exist in the space between the plates. This electric field will be small at first; the plates don t charge right away. But the charge will increase over a period of time, depending on how large the plates are, and also depending on how far apart they are. Figure 11-2 is a relative graph showing the intensity of the electric field between the plates as a function of time, elapsed from the instant the plates are connected to the battery terminals.
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11-2 Relative electric field intensity between the huge metal plates, as a function of time.
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The unit of capacitance 201 Energy will be stored in this electric field. The ability of the plates, and of the space between them, to store this energy is the property of capacitance. It is denoted by the letter C.
Practical capacitors
It s out of the question to make a capacitor of the above dimensions. But two sheets, or strips, of foil can be placed one on top of the other, separated by a thin, nonconducting sheet such as paper, and then the whole assembly can be rolled up to get a large effective surface area. When this is done, the electric flux becomes great enough so that the device exhibits significant capacitance. In fact, two sets of several plates each can be meshed together, with air in between them, and the resulting capacitance will be significant at high ac frequencies. In a capacitor, the electric flux concentration is multiplied when a dielectric of a certain type is placed between the plates. Plastics work very well for this purpose. This increases the effective surface area of the plates, so that a physically small component can be made to have a large capacitance. The voltage that a capacitor can handle depends on the thickness of the metal sheets or strips, on the spacing between them, and on the type of dielectric used. In general, capacitance is directly proportional to the surface area of the conducting plates or sheets. Capacitance is inversely proportional to the separation between conducting sheets; in other words, the closer the sheets are to each other, the greater the capacitance. The capacitance also depends on the dielectric constant of the material between the plates. A vacuum has a dielectric constant of 1; some substances have dielectric constants that multiply the effective capacitance many times.
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