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Ceramic capacitors
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Porcelain is another material that works well as a dielectric. Sheets of metal are stacked alternately with wafers of ceramic to make these capacitors. The meshing/layering geometry of Fig. 11-6 is used. Ceramic, like mica, has quite low loss, and therefore allows for high efficiency.
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206 Capacitance For low values of capacitance, just one layer of ceramic is needed, and two metal plates can be glued to the disk-shaped porcelain, one on each side. This type of component is known as a disk-ceramic capacitor. Alternatively, a tube or cylinder of ceramic can be employed, and metal ink applied to the inside and outside of the tube. Such units are called tubular capacitors. Ceramic capacitors have values ranging from a few picofarads to about 0.5 F. Their voltage ratings are comparable to those of paper capacitors.
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Plastic-film capacitors
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Various different plastics make good dielectrics for the manufacture of capacitors. Polyester, polyethylene, and polystyrene are commonly used. The substance called mylar that you might have seen used to tint windows makes a good dielectric for capacitors. The method of manufacture is similar to that for paper capacitors when the plastic is flexible. Stacking methods can be used if the plastic is more rigid. The geometries can vary, and these capacitors are therefore found in several different shapes. Capacitance values for plastic-film units range from about 50 pF to several tens of microfarads. Most often they are in the range of 0.001 F to 10 F. Plastic capacitors are employed at audio and radio frequencies, and at low to moderate voltages. The efficiency is good, although not as high as that for mica-dielectric or air-dielectric units.
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Electrolytic capacitors
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All of the above-mentioned types of capacitors provide relatively small values of capacitance. They are also nonpolarized, meaning that they can be hooked up in a circuit in either direction. An electrolytic capacitor provides considerably greater capacitance than any of the above types, but it must be connected in the proper direction in a circuit to work right. Therefore, an electrolytic capacitor is a polarized component. Electrolytic capacitors are made by rolling up aluminum foil strips, separated by paper saturated with an electrolyte liquid. The electrolyte is a conducting solution. When dc flows through the component, the aluminum oxidizes because of the electrolyte. The oxide layer is nonconducting, and forms the dielectric for the capacitor. The layer is extremely thin, and this results in a high capacitance per unit volume. Electrolytic capacitors can have values up to thousands of microfarads, and some units can handle thousands of volts. These capacitors are most often seen in audiofrequency circuits and in dc power supplies.
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Tantalum capacitors
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Another type of electrolytic capacitor uses tantalum rather than aluminum. The tantalum can be foil, as is the aluminum in a conventional electrolytic capacitor. It might also take the form of a porous pellet, the irregular surface of which provides a large area in a small volume. An extremely thin oxide layer forms on the tantalum.
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Variable capacitors 207 Tantalum capacitors have high reliability and excellent efficiency. They are often used in military applications because they do not fail often. They can be used in audio-frequency and digital circuits in place of aluminum electrolytics.
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Semiconductor capacitors
A little later in this book, you ll learn about semiconductors. These materials, in their many different forms, have revolutionized electrical and electronic circuit design in the past several decades. These materials can be employed to make capacitors. A semiconductor diode conducts current in one direction, and refuses to conduct in the other direction. When a voltage source is connected across a diode so that it does not conduct, the diode acts as a capacitor. The capacitance varies depending on how much of this reverse voltage is applied to the diode. The greater the reverse voltage, the smaller the capacitance. This makes the diode a variable capacitor. Some diodes are especially manufactured to serve this function. Their capacitances fluctuate rapidly along with pulsating dc. These components are called varactor diodes or simply varactors. Capacitors can be formed in the semiconductor materials of an integrated circuit (IC) in much the same way. Sometimes, IC diodes are fabricated to serve as varactors. Another way to make a capacitor in an IC is to sandwich an oxide layer into the semiconductor material, between two layers that conduct well. You have probably seen ICs in electronic equipment; almost any personal computer has dozens of them. They look like little boxes with many prongs (Fig. 11-7).
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