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11-7 An integrated-circuit package.
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Semiconductor capacitors usually have small values of capacitance. They are physically tiny, and can handle only low voltages. The advantages are miniaturization, and an ability, in the case of the varactor, to change in value at a rapid rate.
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Variable capacitors
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Capacitors can be varied in value by adjusting the mutual surface area between the plates, or by changing the spacing between the plates. The two most common types of variable capacitors (besides varactors) are the air variable and the trimmer. You might also encounter coaxial capacitors.
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208 Capacitance
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Air variables
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By connecting two sets of metal plates so that they mesh, and by affixing one set to a rotatable shaft, a variable capacitor is made. The rotatable set of plates is called the rotor, and the fixed set is called the stator. This is the type of component you might have seen in older radio receivers, used to tune the frequency. Such capacitors are still used in transmitter output tuning networks. Figure 11-8 is a functional rendition of an air-variable capacitor.
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11-8 Simplified drawing of an air-variable capacitor.
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Air variables have maximum capacitance that depends on the number of plates in each set, and also on the spacing between the plates. Common maximum values are 50 pF to about 1,000 pF; minimum values are a few picofarads. The voltage-handling capability depends on the spacing between the plates; some air variables can handle many kilovolts. Air variables are used primarily at radio frequencies. They are highly efficient, and are nonpolarized, although the rotor is usually connected to common ground (the chassis or circuit board).
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Trimmers
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When it is not necessary to change the value of a capacitor very often, a trimmer might be used. It consists of two plates, mounted on a ceramic base and separated by a sheet of mylar, mica, or some other dielectric. The plates are springy and can be squashed together more or less by means of a screw (Fig. 11-9). Sometimes two sets of several plates are interleaved to increase the capacitance. Trimmers can be connected in parallel with an air variable, so that the range of the air variable can be adjusted. Some air-variable capacitors have trimmers built in. Typical maximum values for trimmers range from a few picofarads up to about 200 pF. They handle low to moderate voltages, and are highly efficient. They are nonpolarized.
Coaxial capacitors
Recall from the previous chapter that sections of transmission lines can work as inductors. They can act as capacitors too.
Tolerance 209
11-9 A trimmer capacitor.
If a section of transmission line is less than 1/4 wavelength long, and is left open at the far end (rather than shorted out), it will act as a capacitor. The capacitance will increase with length. The most common transmission-line capacitor uses two telescoping sections of tubing. This is called a coaxial capacitor and works because there is a certain effective surface area between the inner and the outer tubing sections. A sleeve of plastic dielectric is placed between the sections of tubing, as shown in Fig. 11-10. This allows the capacitance to be adjusted by sliding the inner section in or out of the outer section.
11-10 A coaxial variable capacitor.
Coaxial capacitors are used in radio-frequency applications, particularly in antenna systems. Their values are generally from a few picofarads up to about 100 pF.
Tolerance
Capacitors are rated according to how nearly their values can be expected to match the rated capacitance. The most common tolerance is 10 percent; some capacitors are rated at 5 percent or even at 1 percent. In all cases, the tolerance ratings are plus-or-minus.
210 Capacitance Therefore, a 10-percent capacitor can range from 10 percent less than its assigned value to 10 percent more.
Problem 11-6
A capacitor is rated at 0.001 F, plus-or-minus 10 percent. What is the actual range of capacitances it can have First, multiply 0.001 by 10 percent to get the plus-or-minus variation. This is 0.001 0.1 0.0001 F. Then add and subtract this from the rated value to get the maximum and minimum possible capacitances. The result is 0.0011 F to 0.0009 F. You might prefer to work with picofarads instead of microfarads, if the small numbers make you feel uneasy. Just change 0.001 F to 1000 pF. Then the variation is plus-or-minus 1000 0.1 100 pF, and the range becomes 1100 pF to 900 pF.
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