barcode in vb.net 2010 Basic Bipolar Transistor Amplifier in Software

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Basic Bipolar Transistor Amplifier
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In the previous chapters, you saw some circuits that use bipolar and field effect transistors. A signal can be applied to some control point, causing a much greater signal to appear at the output. This is the principle by which all amplifiers work.
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382 Amplifiers and Oscillators
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24-1 An amplifier circuit with a bipolar transistor. Component
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designators are discussed in the text.
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In Fig. 24-1, an NPN bipolar transistor is connected as a common emitter amplifier. The input signal passes through C2 to the base. Resistors R2 and R3 provide the base bias. Resistor R1 and capacitor C1 allow for the emitter to have a dc voltage relative to ground, while keeping it grounded for signals. Resistor R1 also limits the current through the transistor. The ac output signal goes through capacitor C3. Resistor R4 keeps the ac output signal from being short-circuited through the power supply. In this amplifier, the optimum capacitance values depend on the design frequency of the amplifier, and also on the impedances at the input and output. In general, as the frequency and/or circuit impedance increase, less capacitance is needed. At audio frequencies and low impedances, the capacitors might be as large as 100 F. At radio frequencies and high impedances, values will be only a fraction of a microfarad, down to picofarads at the highest frequencies and impedances. The optimum resistor values also depend on the application. In the case of a weak-signal amplifier, typical values are 470 for R1, 4.7 k for R2, 10 k for R3, and 4.7 k for R4.
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Basic JFET Amplifier
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Figure 24-2 shows an N-channel JFET hooked up as a common source amplifier. The input signal passes through C2 to the gate. Resistor R2 provides the bias. Resistor R1 and capacitor C1 give the source a dc voltage relative to ground, while grounding it for signals. The output signal goes through C3. Resistor R3 keeps the output signal from being short-circuited through the power supply. A JFET has a high input impedance, and therefore the value of C2 should usually be small. If the device is a MOSFET, the input impedance is higher still, and C2 will be smaller yet, sometimes 1 pF or less. The resistor values depend on the application. In some instances, R1 and C1 are not used, and the source is grounded directly. If R1 is used, its optimum value will depend on the input
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Amplifier Classes 383
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24-2 An amplifier circuit with an FET. Component designators are
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discussed in the text.
impedance and the bias needed for the FET. For a weak-signal amplifier, typical values are 680 for R1, 10 k for R2, and 100 for R3.
Amplifier Classes
Amplifier circuits can be categorized as class A, class AB, class B, and class C. Each class has its own special characteristics, and works best in its own unique set of applications.
The Class A Amplifier With the previously mentioned component values, the amplifier circuits in Figs. 24-1 and 24-2 operate in class A. This type of amplifier is linear, meaning that the output waveform has the same shape as (although a much greater amplitude than) the input waveform. For class A operation with a bipolar transistor, the bias must be such that, with no signal input, the device is near the middle of the straight-line portion of the IC versus IB (collector current versus base current) curve. This is shown for an NPN transistor in Fig. 24-3. For PNP, reverse the polarity signs. With a JFET or MOSFET, the bias must be such that, with no signal input, the device is near the middle of the straight-line part of the ID versus EG (drain current versus gate voltage) curve. This is shown in Fig. 24-4 for an N-channel JFET. For P channel, reverse the polarity signs. In a class A amplifier, it is important that the input signal not be too strong. An excessively strong input signal will drive the device out of the straight-line part of the characteristic curve during part of the cycle. When this occurs, the output waveshape will not be a faithful reproduction of the input waveshape, and the amplifier will become nonlinear. Class A amplifiers are supposed to operate in a linear fashion at all times. The Class AB Amplifier Class A operation is inefficient because the transistor draws current whether there is a signal input or not. For weak-signal work, efficiency is not too critical; the things that matter are the gain and
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