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Limitations of IC Technology
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No technological advancement ever comes without a downside. Integrated circuits have some limitations that must be considered when designing an electronic system.
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Inductors Impractical While some components are easy to fabricate onto chips, other components defy the IC manufacturing process. Inductances, except for extremely low values, are an example. Devices using ICs must generally be designed to work with discrete inductors, external to the ICs themselves. However, resistance-capacitance (RC) circuits are capable of doing most things that inductancecapacitance (LC) circuits can do, and these can exist inside an IC. High Power Impossible The small size and low current consumption of ICs comes with an inherent limitation: high-power amplifiers cannot, in general, be fabricated onto chips. High power necessitates a certain amount of physical mass and volume. High-power devices and systems invariably generate large amounts of heat, which must be efficiently radiated or conducted away.
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Linear ICs
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A linear IC is used to process analog signals such as voices, music, and radio transmissions. The term linear arises from the fact that, in general, the amplification factor is constant as the input amplitude varies. That is, the output signal strength is a linear function of the input signal strength (Fig. 28-1).
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Linear ICs 493
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28-1 In a linear IC, the
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relative output is a linear (straight-line) function of the relative input. The solid lines show examples of linear IC characteristics. The dashed curves show functions not characteristic of properly operating linear ICs.
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Operational Amplifier An operational amplifier, or op amp, is a specialized linear IC that consists of several bipolar transistors, resistors, diodes, and capacitors, interconnected so that high gain is possible over a wide range of frequencies. An op amp might comprise an entire IC. Or, an IC might consist of two or more op amps. Thus, you ll sometimes hear of dual op amps or quad op amps. Some ICs have op amps in addition to other circuits. An op amp has two inputs, one noninverting and one inverting, and one output. When a signal goes into the noninverting input, the output is in phase with the input; when a signal goes into the inverting input, the output is 180 out of phase with the input. An op amp has two power supply connections, one for the emitters of the transistors (Vee) and one for the collectors (Vcc). The usual schematic symbol for an op amp is a triangle. The inputs, output, and power-supply connections are drawn as lines emerging from it (Fig. 28-2). The gain of an op amp is determined by one or more external resistors. Normally, a resistor is connected between the output and the inverting input. This is called the closed-loop configuration. The feedback is negative (out of phase), causing the gain of the op amp to be less than it would be if there were no feedback (the open-loop configuration). Figure 28-3 is a schematic diagram of a noninverting closed-loop amplifier. The reason for providing negative feedback in an op amp circuit is the fact that without it, the gain may be too great. Excessive amplifier gain can cause problems. Open-loop op amps are prone to instability, especially at low frequencies. They also generate a lot of internal noise. When an RC combination is used in the feedback loop of an op amp, the gain depends on the input-signal frequency. It is possible to get a lowpass response, a highpass response, a resonant peak, or a resonant notch using an op amp and various RC feedback arrangements. These four types of responses are shown in Fig. 28-4.
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28-2 Schematic symbol
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for an op amp. Connections are discussed in the text.
494 Integrated Circuits
28-3 A closed-loop op amp
circuit with negative feedback. If the feedback resistor is removed, it becomes an open-loop circuit.
28-4 Gain-versus-frequency
response curves. At A, lowpass; at B, highpass; at C, resonant peak; at D, resonant notch.
28-5 A differentiator circuit
that uses an op amp.
Linear ICs 495
Op Amp Differentiator A differentiator is an electronic circuit whose instantaneous output amplitude is proportional to the rate at which the input amplitude changes. The circuit mathematically differentiates the input signal. Op amps can be used as differentiator circuits. An example is shown in Fig. 28-5. When the input to a differentiator is a constant dc voltage, the output is zero (no signal). When the input amplitude is increasing, the output is a positive dc voltage. When the input decreases, the output is a negative dc voltage. If the input waveform fluctuates periodically (the usual case), the output varies according to the instantaneous rate of change of the input amplitude. This results in an output signal with the same frequency as that of the input signal, although the waveform is often quite different. A pure sine wave input produces a pure sine wave at the output, but the phase is shifted 90 to the left (that is, 1 4 cycle earlier in time). Complex input waveforms can produce a wide variety of outputs from a differentiator. Op Amp Integrator An integrator is an electronic circuit whose instantaneous output amplitude is proportional to the accumulated input signal amplitude as a function of time. The circuit mathematically integrates the input signal. The function of an integrator is basically the inverse, or opposite, of the function of a differentiator circuit. Figure 28-6 shows how an op amp can be connected to obtain an integrator. If an integrator circuit is supplied with an input signal waveform that fluctuates periodically (the usual case), the output voltage varies according to the integral, or antiderivative, of the input voltage. This results in an output signal with the same frequency as that of the input signal, although the waveform is likely to be different. A pure sine wave input produces a pure sine wave output, but the phase is shifted 90 to the right (that is, 1 4 cycle later in time). Complex input waveforms can produce many types of output waveforms. An indefinite rise, either negatively or positively, in output voltage cannot occur in a practical integrator. If the mathematical integral (in pure theory) of an input function is an endlessly increasing output function, the actual output voltage rises to a certain maximum, either positive or negative, and stays there. This maximum is less than or equal to the power supply or battery voltage. Voltage Regulator A voltage regulator IC acts to control the output voltage of a power supply. This is important with precision electronic equipment. These ICs are available with various voltage and current ratings. Typical voltage regulator ICs have three terminals, and because of this, they are sometimes mistaken for power transistors.
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