barcode in vb.net 2010 Transducers, Sensors, Location, and Navigation in Software

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530 Transducers, Sensors, Location, and Navigation
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30-13 At A, a block diagram of medium-range sonar system. At B, a
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sonar system can be confused by long delays.
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transducer. There are two signal sources at different frequencies. When the transducer is rotated so the signal from one source is maximum, a bearing is obtained by comparing the orientation of the transducer with some known standard such as a magnetic compass. The same is done for the other source. A computer determines the precise location of the robot, based on this data.
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Radio Direction Finding (RDF) A radio receiver, equipped with a signal-strength indicator and connected to a rotatable, directional antenna, can be used to determine the direction from which signals are coming. Radio direction find-
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Navigational Methods 531
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30-14 A simple direction-finding scheme (A) and an ultrasonic
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direction finder (B).
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ing (RDF) equipment aboard a mobile vehicle facilitates determining the location of a transmitter. An RDF receiver can also be used to find one s own position with respect to two or more transmitters operating on different frequencies. In an RDF receiver for use at frequencies below about 300 MHz, a small loop or loopstick antenna is used. It is shielded against the electric component of radio waves, so it picks up only the magnetic part of the EM field. The loop is rotated until a sharp dip, or null, occurs in the received signal strength, indicating that the axis of the loop lies along a line toward the transmitter. When readings are taken from two or more locations separated by a sufficient distance, the transmitter can be pinpointed by finding the intersection point of the azimuth bearing lines on a map. At frequencies above approximately 300 MHz, a directional transmitting and receiving antenna, such as a Yagi, quad, dish, or helical type, gives better results than a small loop. When such an antenna is employed for RDF, the azimuth bearing is indicated by a signal peak rather than by a null.
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Navigation involves the use of location devices over a period of time, thereby deriving a function of position versus time. This technique can be used to determine whether or not a vessel is on course. It can also be used to track the paths of military targets, severe thunderstorms, and hurricanes.
Fluxgate Magnetometer When conventional position sensors do not function in a particular environment for a mobile robot, a fluxgate magnetometer can be used. This system employs sensitive magnetic receptors and a
532 Transducers, Sensors, Location, and Navigation
microcomputer to sense the presence of, and detect changes in, an artificially generated magnetic field. Navigation within a room can be done by checking the orientation of magnetic lines of flux generated by electromagnets in the walls, floor, and ceiling of the room. For each point in the room, the magnetic flux lines have a unique direction and intensity. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the magnetic flux intensity/direction and the points within the robot s operating environment. This correspondence can be represented as a two-variable mathematical function of every location in the room. The robot controller is programmed to know this function. This makes it possible for the machine to pinpoint its position with extreme accuracy, in some cases to within a few millimeters.
Epipolar Navigation Epipolar navigation works by evaluating the way an image changes as viewed from a moving perspective. Suppose that you are piloting an aircraft over the ocean. The only land in sight is a small island. The on-board computer sees an image of the island that constantly changes shape. Figure 30-15 shows three sample sighting positions (A, B, C) and the size/shape of the island as seen by a machine vision system in each case. The computer has the map data, so it knows the true size, shape, and location of the island. The computer compares the shape and size of the image it sees at each point in time, from the vantage point of the aircraft, with the actual shape and size of the island from the map data. From this, the computer can ascertain the altitude of the aircraft, its speed and direction of movement relative to the surface, its latitude, and its longitude. Log Polar Navigation In log polar navigation, a computer converts an image in polar coordinates to an image in rectangular coordinates. The polar radius is mapped onto the vertical rectangular axis, and the polar angle is mapped onto the horizontal rectangular axis. Radial coordinates are unevenly spaced in the polar map, but are uniform in the rectangular map. During the transformation, the logarithm of the radius is taken to maximize the geographical area that the system can observe. As a result of this logarithmic transformation (that s where the log comes from in the term), long-distance resolution is sacrificed, but the close-in resolution is enhanced. The so-called log polar transform distorts the way a scene appears to human observers, but translates images and motions into data that can be efficiently dealt with by a computerized scanning system. Loran The term loran is an acronym derived from the words long range navigation. Loran is one of the oldest electronic navigation schemes, and is still used by some ships and aircraft. The system employs RF pulse transmission at low frequencies from multiple transmitters at specific geographic locations. In loran, a computer on board a vessel can determine the location of the ship by comparing the time difference in the arrival of the signals from two different transmitters at known locations. Based on the fact that radio waves propagate at the speed of light in free space (approximately 299,792 km/s or 186,282 mi/s), it is possible to determine the distance to each transmitter, and from this, the location of the ship relative to the transmitters. In recent years, loran has been largely supplanted by the Global Positioning System (GPS).
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