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The photovoltaic (PV) cell is different from any electrochemical cell. It s also known as a solar cell. This device converts visible light, infrared (IR), and/or ultraviolet (UV) directly into electric current.
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Solar Panels Several, or many, photovoltaic cells can be combined in series-parallel to make a solar panel. An example is shown in Fig. 7-6. Although this shows a 3 3 series-parallel array, the matrix does not have to be symmetrical. And it s often very large. It might consist of, say, 50 parallel sets of 20 seriesconnected cells. The series scheme boosts the voltage to the desired level, and the parallel scheme increases the current-delivering ability of the panel. It s not unusual to see hundreds of solar cells combined in this way to make a large panel. Construction and Performance The construction of a photovoltaic cell is shown in Fig. 7-7. The device is a flat semiconductor P-N junction, and the assembly is made transparent so that light can fall directly on the P-type silicon. The metal ribbing, forming the positive electrode, is interconnected by means of tiny wires. The negative electrode is a metal backing or substrate, placed in contact with the N-type silicon. Most solar cells provide about 0.5 V. If there is very low current demand, dim light will result in the full-output voltage from a solar cell. As the current demand increases, brighter light is needed to produce the full-output voltage. There is a maximum limit to the current that can be provided from a solar cell, no matter how bright the light. This limit is increased by connecting solar cells in parallel. Practical Applications Solar cells have become cheaper and more efficient in recent years, as researchers have looked to them as an alternative energy source. Solar panels are used in satellites. They can be used in conjunction with rechargeable batteries, such as the lead-acid or nickel-cadmium types, to provide power independent of the commercial utilities. A completely independent solar/battery power system is called a stand-alone system. It uses large solar panels, large-capacity lead-acid batteries, power converters to convert the dc into ac, and a sophisticated charging circuit. These systems are best suited to environments where there is sunshine a high percentage of the time.
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7-6 Connection of cells in series-parallel.
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Solar cells, either alone or supplemented with rechargeable batteries, can be connected into a home electric system in an interactive arrangement with the electric utilities. When the solar power system can t provide for the needs of the household all by itself, the utility company can take up the slack. Conversely, when the solar power system supplies more than enough for the needs of the home, the utility company can buy the excess.
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In the late 1900s, a new type of electrochemical power device emerged that is believed by some scientists and engineers to hold promise as an alternative energy source: the fuel cell.
Hydrogen Fuel The most talked-about fuel cell during the early years of research and development became known as the hydrogen fuel cell. As its name implies, it derives electricity from hydrogen. The hydrogen combines with oxygen (that is, it oxidizes) to form energy and water. There is no pollution, and there are no toxic by-products. When a hydrogen fuel cell runs out of juice, all that is needed is a new supply of hydrogen, because its oxygen is derived from the atmosphere. Instead of combusting, the hydrogen in a fuel cell oxidizes in a more controlled fashion, and at a much lower temperature. There are several schemes for making this happen. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is one of the most widely used. A PEM hydrogen fuel cell generates approximately 0.7 V of dc. In order to obtain higher voltages, individual cells are connected in series. A series-connected set of fuel cells is technically a battery, but the term used more often is stack. Fuel-cell stacks are available in various sizes. A stack about the size and weight of an airline suit-
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