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Electromagnets
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Any electric current, or movement of charge carriers, produces a magnetic field. This field can become intense in a tightly coiled wire that has many turns and carries a large current. When a ferromagnetic core is placed inside the coil, the magnetic lines of flux are concentrated in the core, and the field strength in and near the core can become tremendous. This is the principle of an electromagnet (Fig. 8-5). Electromagnets are almost always cylindrical in shape. Sometimes the cylinder is long and thin; in other cases it is short and fat. But whatever the ratio of diameter to length for the core, the principle is the same: the magnetic field produced by the current results in magnetization of the core.
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Direct-Current Types You can build a dc electromagnet by taking a large bolt, such as a stove bolt, and wrapping a few dozen or a few hundred turns of wire around it. These items are available in any good hardware store. Be sure the bolt is made of ferromagnetic material. (If a permanent magnet sticks to the bolt, the bolt is ferromagnetic.) Ideally, the bolt should be at least 1 cm (approximately 3 8 in) in diameter and several inches long. You must use insulated wire, preferably made of solid, soft copper. Bell wire works well. Be sure all the wire turns go in the same direction. A large 6-V lantern battery can provide plenty of current to work the electromagnet. Never leave the coil connected to the battery for more than a few seconds at a time. And never use a car battery for this experiment! The acid can boil out of this type of battery, because the electromagnet places a heavy load on it.
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Electromagnets 121
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8-5 In an electromagnet,
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the magnetic flux is concentrated in a ferromagnetic rod surrounded by a current-carrying coil.
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Direct-current electromagnets have defined north and south poles, just like permanent magnets. The main difference is that an electromagnet can get much stronger than any permanent magnet. You will see evidence of this if you do the preceding experiment with a large enough bolt and enough turns of wire.
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Alternating-Current Types Do you get the idea that an electromagnet can be made far stronger if, rather than using a lantern battery for the current source, you plug the wires into a wall outlet In theory, this is true. In prac-
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8-6 Polarity change in an ac
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electromagnet. The polarity changes every 1/120 second for 60-Hz utility current.
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122 Magnetism
tice, you ll blow the fuse or circuit breaker. Do not try this! The electrical circuits in some buildings are not adequately protected and it can create a fire hazard. Also, you can get a lethal shock from the utility mains. Some electromagnets use ac, and these magnets will stick to ferromagnetic objects. But the polarity of the magnetic field reverses every time the direction of the current reverses. With conventional household ac in the United States, there are 120 fluctuations, or 60 complete north-to-south-to-north polarity changes (Fig. 8-6), per second. If a permanent magnet, or a dc electromagnet, is brought near either pole of an ac electromagnet, there is no net force because the poles are alike half the time and opposite half the time, producing an equal amount of attractive and repulsive force. But if a piece of iron or steel is brought near a strong ac electromagnet, watch out! The attractive force will be powerful.
Magnetic Properties of Materials
There are four important properties that materials can have with respect to magnetic flux. These properties are ferromagnetism, diamagnetism, permeability, and retentivity.
Ferromagnetism Some substances cause magnetic lines of flux to bunch closer together than they would in the medium of air or a vacuum. This property is called ferromagnetism, and materials that exhibit it are called ferromagnetic. You ve already learned something about this! Diamagnetism Another property is known as diamagnetism, and materials that exhibit it are called diamagnetic. This type of substance decreases the magnetic flux density by causing the magnetic flux lines to diverge. Wax, dry wood, bismuth, and silver are examples. No diamagnetic material reduces the strength of a magnetic field by anywhere near the factor that ferromagnetic substances can increase it. Diamagnetic materials are generally used to keep magnetic objects apart, while minimizing the interaction between them. In recent years, they have also found some application in magnetic levitation devices. Permeability Permeability is a quantitative indicator of the extent to which a ferromagnetic material concentrates magnetic lines of flux. It is measured on a scale relative to a vacuum, or free space. Free space is assigned permeability 1. If you have a coil of wire with an air core, and a current is forced through the wire, then the flux in the coil core is at a certain density, just about the same as it would be in a vacuum. Therefore, the permeability of pure air is about equal to 1. If you place an iron core in the coil, the flux density increases by a large factor. The permeability of iron can range from 60 (impure) to as much as 8000 (highly refined). If you use certain ferromagnetic alloys as the core material in electromagnets, you can increase the flux density, and therefore the local strength of the field, by as much as a million times. Such substances thus have permeability as great as 1,000,000 (106). Table 8-1 gives permeability values for some common materials. Retentivity When a substance, such as iron, is subjected to a magnetic field as intense as it can handle, say by enclosing it in a wire coil carrying a massive current, there will be some residual magnetism left
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