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When a user turns a cellular phone on, several things happen. First, the phone identifies itself to anyone willing to listen (hopefully, a local cell) by transmitting a unique identification code on a frequency that is designated as a control channel. The control channel is used for the transmission of operations and maintenance messages between cellular telephones and cell sites. If the phone is within the operating area of a cell site, the site registers the presence of the phone within its operating area, notifies the MTSO that all the cells in an area are connected to, and tracks its position, based on signal strength, as it moves around the cell. When the user wants to place a call, he or she simply pushes the right buttons, which create simulated touch-tone sounds. Once dialing is complete, the user pushes the Send button, which causes the handset to transmit the buffered digits across the control channel to the local cell. The local cell hands the call off to the MTSO. The MTSO analyzes the digits, instructs the handset and the cell to use a particular set of frequencies for the call, and routes the call to the appropriate destination. MTSOs are interconnected to the wireline network and can therefore terminate calls at any location, including to another cellular user. If driving while talking, the user may approach a cell boundary. The MTSO, which tracks the relative signal strength of each user as he or she moves among the various cells within its domain, will effect the handoff of a call from one cell to another if the user s movement (based on signal strength) indicates that he or she is approaching a cell boundary.
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Traditional analog cellular telephony relies on a technique called Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) as the access and frequency sharing scheme between mobile users and the cellular network. In FDMA systems, the available spectrum is divided into channels that are assigned to users on demand. One or more of the channels is reserved and set aside as control channels, used to transmit maintenance and operations information between the mobile phone and the network. Each conversation requires two 30-kHz channels, one for the forward, or base-to-mobile direction, and one for the reverse, or mobile-to-base station direction. This pairing of channels permits true, full-duplex telephony.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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In the same way that carrier systems evolved from analog to digital transmission, cellular telephony systems have evolved from analog, FDMA-based access schemes to digital access. Two schemes show the most promise. The first, Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA), resembles FDMA in that it divides the available frequency spectrum into channels. That, however, is where the resemblance ends. In TDMA, each of the analog channels carries telephone circuits that are time division multiplexed; that is, they share access to the channel. As in FDMA, a control channel is reserved for communication between the network and mobile users. The biggest advantage that TDMA systems have over FDMA systems is that they support significantly more users. If each channel is divided into four time slots, then the system capacity is quadrupled. Although TDMA electronics are significantly more complex, the fact that they are digital means that they can easily evolve as technology advances. The second digital access technique is called Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA). CDMA systems are dramatically different from FDMA and TDMA systems in that they do not channelize the available bandwidth; instead, they enable all users to access and use the available spectrum simultaneously. This technique is called spread spectrum transmission. Unlike the traditional narrowband channels of FDMA and TDMA, CDMA channels are typically 1 to 10 MHz wide. Readers might be interested to know that spread spectrum transmission was coinvented during World War II by an electrical engineer who later became famous as a star of the silver screen, Hedy Lamarr. She was awarded the patent in 1941. In CDMA systems, each mobile unit is assigned a unique random code sequence. Each machine uses this random code to uniquely identify its transmission and distinguish it from all other users. Two distinct forms of spread spectrum access exist. The first, Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FH/SS), uses the mobile unit s random code sequence to generate a series of unpredictable frequency hops. The unit literally jumps from frequency to frequency very quickly, in a pseudo-random fashion pseudo-random because only the base unit and the network know the hopping pattern. The second technique, called Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS), uses the mobile unit s random code to convert the relatively lowbit-rate signal of the conversation into a high-bit-rate signal that sounds like noise to anyone else who is listening. Again, only the mobile unit and the network are capable of decoding the message stream. As a result, both FHSS and DSSS systems are highly secure.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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