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Low/Medium Earth Orbit (LEO/MEO) Satellites
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In addition to the geosynchronous satellite arrays, a variety of lower orbit constellations are deployed, known as Low and Medium Earth Orbit (LEO/MEO) satellites. Unlike the geosynchronous satellites, these orbit at lower altitudes, 400 to 600 miles, far lower than the 23,000-mile altitude of the typical GEO bird. As a result of their lower altitude, the transit delay between an Earth station and a LEO satellite is virtually nonexistent. However, another problem exists with LEO technology. Because the satellites orbit pole to pole, they do not appear to be stationary, which means that if they are to provide uninterrupted service they must be able to hand off a transmission from one satellite to another before the first bird disappears below the horizon. This has resulted in the development of sophisticated satellite-based technology that emulates the
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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functionality of a cellular telephone network. The difference is that in this case, the user does not appear to move; the cell does.
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Perhaps the best-known example of LEO technology is Motorola s ill-fated Iridium deployment. Comprising 66 satellites3 in a polar array, Iridium was designed to provide voice service to any user, anywhere on the face of the Earth. The satellites would provide global coverage and would hand off calls from one to another as the need arose. Unfortunately, Iridium s marketing strategy was flawed; their prices were high, their phones large and cumbersome (one newspaper article referred to them as manly phones ), and their market significantly overestimated. Additionally, their system was only capable of supporting 64-Kbps voice services, a puny bandwidth allocation in these days of customers with broadband desires. In the last year, the company failed but was pulled from the ashes. In June of 2001, the company announced a resumption of service, but many still question the technology s viability. Iridium offers a maximum bandwidth level of 10 Kbps for $1.50 per minute. With the right kind of coaxing, most traditional, terrestrial providers (AT&T, Sprint, or Worldcom) offer comparable prices but significantly higher bandwidth. Iridium is not alone. ICO Global Communications, another satellitebased global communications company, filed for bankruptcy in August of 1999. In November of that same year, Craig McCaw, Teledesic, and Eagle River offered salvation for the company with an investment package valued at as much as $1.2 billion.
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Others have been successful, however. Globalstar s 48-satellite array offers voice, short messaging, roaming, global positioning, fax, and data transport up to 9600 bps. Although the data rates are miniscule by comparison to other services, the converged collection of services they
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The system was named Iridium because in the original design the system was to require 77 satellites, and 77 is the atomic number of that element. Shortly after naming it Iridium, however, the technologists in the company determined that they would only need 66 birds. They did not rename the system Dysprosium.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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ORBCOMM
ORBCOMM is a partnership jointly owned by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Teleglobe Canada. Their satellites are nothing more than extraterrestrial routers that interconnect vehicles and Earth stations to facilitate deployment of such packet-based applications as two-way short messaging, e-mail, and vehicle tracking. Their constellation has a total of 35 satellites.
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