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Frame Relay and ATM, discussed later in this chapter, are virtual circuit technologies. Connectionless packet switching does not establish a virtual dedicated path through the network; instead, it hands the packets to the ingress switch and enables the switch to determine the optimum routing on a packet-by-packet basis. This is extremely efficient from a network point of view, but is less favorable for the client in that every packet is treated slightly differently, the result of which can be unpredictable delays and out-of-order delivery. The third form of packet switching is called fast packet, two forms of which are Frame Relay and ATM. The technique is called fast packet because the processing efficiency is far better than traditional packet switching because of reduced overhead. Fast-packet technologies are characterized by low error rates, significantly lower processing overhead, high transport speed, minimal delay, and relatively low cost. The switches accomplish this by making several assumptions about the network. First, they assume (correctly) that the network is digital and based largely on a fiber infrastructure, the result of which is an inordinately low error rate. Second, they assume that, unlike their predecessors, the end-user devices are intelligent and therefore have the capability to detect and correct errors on an end-to-end basis (at a higher protocol layer), rather than stopping every packet at every node to check it for errors and correct them. These switches still check for errors, but if they find errored packets, they simply discard them, knowing that the end devices will realize that a problem exists and take corrective measures on an end-to-end basis. Think back to 2, Protocols, for a moment: this is the difference between layer two error-detection and layer four error-detection.
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Frame Relay came about as a private-line replacement technology and was originally intended as a data-only service. Today it carries not only data, but voice and video as well, and although it was originally crafted with a top speed of T-1 E-1, it now provides connectivity at much higher bandwidth levels. In Frame Relay networks, the incoming data stream is packaged as a series of variable-length frames that can transport any kind of data: local area network (LAN) traffic, Internet Protocol (IP) packets, Systems
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Network Architecture (SNA) frames, and even voice and video. In fact, it has been recognized as a highly effective transport mechanism for voice, enabling Frame Relay-capable PBXs to be connected to a Frame Relay permanent virtual circuit (PVC), which can cost-effectively replace private-line circuits used for the same purpose. When voice is carried over Frame Relay, it is usually compressed for transport efficiency and packaged in small frames to minimize the processing delay of the frames. According to the Frame Relay Forum, as many as 255 voice channels can be encoded over a single PVC, although the number is usually smaller when actually implemented. Frame Relay is a virtual circuit service. When customers want to connect two locations using Frame Relay, they contact their service provider and tell the service representative where the endpoints are located and the bandwidth they require. The service provider issues a service order to create the circuit. If, at some point in the future, the customer decides to change the circuit endpoints or upgrade the bandwidth, another service order must be issued, which would be PVC and is the most commonly deployed Frame Relay solution. Frame Relay is also capable of supporting Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) service, but SVCs are for the most part not available from service providers. With SVC service, customers can make their own modifications to the circuit by accessing the Frame Relay switch in the central office (CO) and requesting changes. However, service providers do not currently offer SVC service because of billing and tracking concerns (customer activities are difficult to monitor). Instead, they enable customers to create a fully meshed network between all locations for a very reasonable price. Instead of making routing changes in the switch, the customer has a circuit between every possible combination of desired endpoints. As a result, customers get the functionality of a switched network, while the service provider avoids the difficulty of administering a network within which the customer is actively making changes. In Frame Relay, PVCs are identified using an address called a Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI, pronounced delsie ). At any given endpoint, the customer s router can support multiple DLCIs, and each DLCI can be assigned varying bandwidths based upon the requirements of the device/application on the router port associated with that DLCI. In Figure 6-2, the customer has purchased a T-1 circuit to connect his or her router to the Frame Relay network. The router is connected to a videoconferencing unit at 384 Kbps, a Frame Relay-capable PBX at 768 Kbps, and a data circuit for Internet access at 512 Kbps.
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