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Figure 6-2 Frame relay service delivery.
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Note that the aggregate bandwidth assigned to these devices exceeds the actual bandwidth of the access line by 128 Kbps (1664 1536). Under normal circumstances, this would not be possible, but Frame Relay assumes that the traffic it will normally be transporting is bursty by nature. If the assumption is correct (and it usually is), it is not likely that all three devices will burst at the same instant in time. As a consequence, the circuit s operating capacity can actually be overbooked, a process known as oversubscription. Most service providers allow as much as 200 percent oversubscription, something customers clearly benefit from, provided the circuit is designed properly. This means that the salesperson must carefully assess the nature of the traffic that the customer will be sending over the link and ensure that enough bandwidth is allocated to support the requirements of the various devices that will be sharing access to the link. Failure to do so can result in an underengineered facility that will not meet the customer s throughput requirements. This is a critical component of the service delivery formula. The throughput level, that is, the bandwidth that Frame Relay service providers absolutely guarantee on a PVC-by-PVC basis, is called the Committed Information Rate (CIR). In addition to CIR, service providers will often support an Excess Information Rate (EIR), which is the rate above the CIR that they will attempt to carry, assuming the capacity is available within the network. However, all frames above the CIR are marked as eligible for discard, which simply means that the network will do its best to deliver them but makes no guarantees. If push comes to shove, and the network finds itself to be congested, the frames marked discard eligible (DE) are immediately discarded at their point of ingress.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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This CIR/EIR relationship is poorly understood by many customers because the CIR is taken to be an indicator of the absolute bandwidth of the circuit. Although bandwidth is typically measured in bits per second, CIR is a measure of bits in one second. In other words, the CIR is a measure of the average throughput that the network will guarantee. The actual transmission volume of a given CIR may be higher or lower than the CIR at any point in time because of the bursty nature of the data being sent, but in aggregate the network will maintain an average, guaranteed flow volume for each PVC. This is a selling point for Frame Relay. In most cases, customers get more than they actually pay for, and as long as the switch loading levels are properly engineered, the switch (and therefore the Frame Relay service offering) will not suffer adversely from this charitable bandwidth allocation philosophy. The key to success when selling Frame Relay is to have a clear understanding of the applications the customer intends to use across the link so that the access facility can be properly sized for the anticipated traffic load.
Managing Service in Frame Relay Networks
Frame Relay does not offer a great deal of granularity when it comes to QoS. The only inherent mechanism is the DE bit described earlier as a way to control network congestion. However, the DE bit is binary. It has two possible values, which means that a customer has two choices: the information being sent is either important or it isn t not particularly useful for establishing a variety of QoS levels. Consequently, a number of vendors have implemented proprietary solutions for QoS management. Within their routers (sometimes called Frame Relay Access Devices [FRADs]) they have established queuing mechanisms that enable customers to create multiple priority levels for differing traffic flows. For example, voice and video, which don t tolerate delay well, could be assigned to a higher-priority queue than the one to which asynchronous data traffic would be assigned. This enables Frame Relay to provide highly granular service. The downside is that this approach is proprietary, which means that the same vendor s equipment must be used on both ends of the circuit. Given the strong move toward interoperability, this is not an ideal solution because it locks the customer into a single-vendor situation.
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