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Congestion Control in Frame Relay
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Frame Relay has two congestion control mechanisms. Embedded in the header of each Frame Relay frame are two additional bits called the Forward Explicit Congestion Notification bit (FECN) and the Backward Explicit Congestion Notification bit (BECN). Both are used to notify devices in the network of congestion situations that could affect throughput. Consider the following scenario. A Frame Relay frame arrives at the second of three switches along the path to its intended destination, where it encounters severe local congestion (see Figure 6-3). The congested switch sets the FECN bit to indicate the presence of congestion and transmits the frame to the next switch in the chain. When the frame arrives, the receiving switch takes note of the FECN bit, which tells the switch the following: I just came from that switch back there, and it s extremely congested. You can transmit stuff back there if you want to, but there s a good chance that anything you send will be discarded, so you might want to wait awhile before transmitting. In other words, the switch has been notified of a congestion condition, to which it may respond by throttling back its output to enable the affected switch time to recover. On the other hand, the BECN bit is used to flow-control a device that is sending too much information into the network. Consider the situation shown in Figure 6-4, where a particular device on the network is transmitting at a high volume level, routinely violating the CIR and perhaps the EIR level established by mutual consent. The ingress switch that is, the first switch the traffic touches has the capability to set the BECN bit on frames going toward the offending device, which carries the
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Figure 6-3 A frame encounters congestion in transit.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Figure 6-4 BECN bit used to warn a station that is transmitting too much data (in violation of its agreement with the switch).
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implicit message, cut it out or I m going to hurt you. In effect, the BECN bit notifies the offending device that it is violating protocol, and continuing to do so will result in every frame from that device being discarded without warning or notification. If this happens, it gives the ingress switch the opportunity to recover. However, it doesn t fix the problem; it merely forestalls the inevitable, because sooner or later the intended recipient will realize that frames are missing and will initiate recovery procedures, which will cause resends to occur. However, it may give the affected devices time to recover before the onslaught begins anew. The problem with FECN and BECN lies in the fact that many devices choose not to implement them. They do not necessarily have the inherent capability to throttle back upon receipt of a congestion indicator, although devices that can are becoming more common. Nevertheless, proprietary solutions are in widespread use and will continue to be for some time to come.
Frame Relay Summary
Frame Relay is clearly a Cinderella technology, evolving quickly from a data-only transport scheme to a multiservice technology with diverse capabilities. For data and some voice and video applications, it shines as a wide area network (WAN) offering. In some areas, however, Frame Relay is lacking. Its bandwidth is limited to DS-3, and its ability to offer standards-based QoS is limited. Given the focus on QoS that is so much a part of customers chanted mantra today, and the flexibility that a switched solution permits, something else is required. That something is ATM.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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