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The AAL comprises two functional sublayers. The Convergence sublayer provides service-specific functions to the Services layer so that it can make the most efficient use of the underlying cell relay technology that ATM provides. The Convergence sublayer s functions include clock recovery for end-to-end timing management, a recovery mechanism for lost or out-of-order cells, and a timestamp capability for time-sensitive traffic such as voice and video. The Segmentation and Reassembly sublayer (SAR) converts the user s data from its original incoming form into the 48-octet payload chunks that will become cells. For example, if the user s data is arriving in the form of 64KB IP packets, SAR chops them into 48-octet payload pieces. It also has the responsibilities of detecting lost or out-of-order cells that the Convergence sublayer will recover from and detecting single bit errors in the payload chunks. The ATM layer has five general responsibilities:
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Cell multiplexing and demultiplexing Virtual path and virtual channel switching Creation of the cell header Generic flow control Cell delineation
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Because the ATM layer creates the cell header, it is responsible for all of the functions that the header manages. The process, then, is fairly straightforward: the user s data passes from the Services layer to the AAL, which segments the data stream into 48-octet pieces. The pieces are handed to the ATM layer, which creates the header and attaches it to the payload unit, thus creating a cell. The cells are then handed down to the Physical layer. The Physical layer consists of two functional sublayers as well: the Transmission Convergence sublayer and the Physical Medium sublayer. The Transmission Convergence sublayer performs three primary functions. The first is called cell rate decoupling, which adapts the cell creation and transmission rate to the rate of the transmission facility by performing cell stuffing, similar to the bit-stuffing process described earlier in the discussion of DS-3 frame creation. The second responsibility is cell delineation, which enables the receiver to delineate between one cell and the next. Finally, it generates the transmission frame in which the cells are to be carried. The Physical Medium sublayer takes care of issues that are specific to the medium being used for transmission, such as line codes, electrical and optical concerns, timing, and signaling.
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The Physical layer can use a wide variety of transport options, including
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DS1/DS2/DS3 E1/E3 25.6-Mbps User-to-Network Interface (UNI) over UTP-3 51-Mbps UNI over UTP-5 (Transparent Asynchronous Transmitter/Receiver Interface [TAXI]) 100-Mbps UNI over UTP-5 OC3/12/48c Others, of course, will follow as transport technologies advance.
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The ATM Cell Header
As mentioned before, ATM is a cell-based technology that relies on a 48octet payload field that contains actual user data, and a five-byte header that contains information needed by the network to route the cell and provide proper levels of service. The ATM cell header, shown in Figure 6-7, is examined and updated by each switch it passes through and comprises six distinct fields: the Generic Flow Control (GFC) field, the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI), the Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI), the Payload Type Identifier (PTI), the Cell Loss Priority (CLP) field, and the Header Error Control (HEC) field.
Generic Flow Control (GFC) This 4-bit field is used across the UNI for network-to-user flow control. It has not yet been completely defined in the ATM standards, but some companies have chosen to use it for very specific purposes. For example, Australia s Telstra Corporation uses it for flow control in the network-to-user direction and as a traffic priority indicator in the user-to-network direction. Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) The 8-bit VPI identifies the virtual path over which the cells will be routed at the UNI. It should be noted that because of dedicated, internal flow control capabilities within the network, the GFC field is not needed across the Networkto-Network Interface (NNI). It is therefore redeployed; the 4 bits are converted to additional VPI bits, thus extending the size of the virtual path field. This enables the identification of more than 4,000 unique VPs. At the UNI, this number is excessive, but across the NNI, it is necessary because of the number of potential paths that
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