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Figure 6-7 ATM cell header details.
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might exist between the switches that make up the fabric of the network.
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Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) As the name implies, the 16-bit VCI identifies the unidirectional virtual channel over which the current cells will be routed. Payload Type Identifier (PTI) The 3-bit PTI field is used to indicate network congestion and cell type, in addition to a number of other functions. The first bit indicates whether the cell is generated by the user or by the network, while the second indicates the presence or absence of congestion in user-generated cells or flowrelated Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) information in cells generated by the network. The third bit is used for service-specific, higher-layer functions in the user-to-network direction, such as to indicate that a cell is the last in a series of cells. From the network to the user, the third bit is used with the second bit to indicate whether the OAM information refers to segment or the end-to-end related information flow. Cell Loss Priority (CLP) The single-bit CLP field is a relatively primitive flow control mechanism by which the user can indicate to the network which cells to discard in the event of a condition that demands that some cells be eliminated, similar to the DE bit in Frame Relay. It can also be set by the network to indicate to downstream switches that certain cells in the stream are eligible for discard, should that become necessary. Header Error Control (HEC) The 8-bit HEC field can be used for two purposes. First, it provides for the calculation of an 8-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) that checks the integrity of the entire header. Second, it can be used for cell delineation.
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Addressing in ATM
6
ATM is a connection-oriented, virtual circuit technology, meaning that communication paths are created through the network prior to actually sending traffic. Once established, the ATM cells are routed based upon a virtual circuit address. A virtual circuit is simply a connection that gives the user the appearance of being dedicated to that user, when in point of fact the only thing that is actually dedicated is a time slot. This technique is generically known as label-based switching and is accomplished through the use of routing tables in the ATM switches that designate input ports, output ports, input addresses, output addresses, and QoS parameters required for proper routing and service provisioning. As a result, cells do not contain explicit destination addresses, but rather contain timeslot identifiers. Every virtual circuit address has two components, as shown in Figure 6-8. The first is the virtual channel (VC), which is a unidirectional conduit for the transmission of cells between two endpoints. For example, if two parties are conducting a videoconference, they will each have a VC for the transmission of outgoing cells that make up the video portion of the conference. The second level of the ATM addressing scheme is called a virtual path (VP). A VP is a bundle of VCs that have the same endpoints, and that, when considered together, make up a bidirectional transport facility. The combination of unidirectional channels that we need in our twoway videoconferencing example makes up a VP.
ATM Services
The basic services that ATM provides are based on three general characteristics: the nature of the connection between the communicating stations (connection-oriented versus connectionless), the timing rela-
Figure 6-8 Addressing in ATM with virtual channels, paths.
Virtual Channel
Bi-directional Virtual Path
Virtual Channel
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Transport Technologies
Transport Technologies
tionship between the sender and the receiver, and the bit rate required to ensure proper levels of service quality. Based on those generic requirements, both the International Telecommunication Union Standardization Sector (ITU-T) and the ATM Forum have created service classes that address the varying requirements of the most common forms of transmitted data. ITU-T Service Classes The ITU-T assigns service classes based on three characteristics: connection mode, bit rate, and the end-to-end timing relationship between the end stations. They have created four distinct service classes, based on the model shown in Figure 6-9. Class A service, for example, defines a connection-oriented, constant-bit-rate, timing-based service that is ideal for the stringent requirements of voice service. Class B, on the other hand, is ideal for such services as VBR video, in that it defines a connection-oriented, VBR, timing-based service. Class C service is defined for such things as Frame Relay, in that it provides a connection-oriented, VBR, timing-independent service. Finally, Class D delivers a connectionless, VBR, timing-independent service that is ideal for IP traffic as well as Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS). In addition to service classes, the ITU-T has defined AAL service types, which align closely with the A, B, C, and D service types described previously. Whereas the service classes (A, B, C, D) describe the capabilities of the underlying network, the AAL types describe the cell format. They are AAL1, AAL2, AAL3/4, and AAL 5. However, only two of them have really survived in a big way. AAL1 is defined for Class A service, which is a constant-bit-rate environment ideally suited for voice and voice-like applications. In AAL1
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