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Figure 6-9 ITU-T ATM service definitions.
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AAL Type
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Connection Mode Bit Rate Timing relationship Service Types
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Transport Technologies
6
cells, the first octet of the payload serves as a payload header that contains cell sequence and synchronization information that is required to provision a constant-bit-rate, fully sequenced service. AAL1 provides circuit emulation service without dedicating a physical circuit, which explains the need for an end-to-end timing relationship between the transmitter and the receiver. AAL5, on the other hand, is designed to provide both Class C and D services, and although it was originally proposed as a transport scheme for connection-oriented data services, it turns out to be more efficient than AAL3/4 and accommodates connectionless services quite well. To guard against the possibility of errors, AAL5 has an 8-octet trailer appended to the user data that includes a variable size pad field used to align the payload on 48-octet boundaries, a 2-octet control field that is currently unused, a 2-octet length field that indicates the number of octets in the user data, and, finally, a 4-octet CRC that can check the integrity of the entire payload. AAL5 is often referred to as the Simple and Easy Adaptation Layer (SEAL), and it may find an ideal application for itself in the burgeoning Internet arena. Recent studies indicate that TCP/IP transmissions produce comparatively large numbers of small packets that tend to be around 48 octets long. That being the case, AAL5 could well transport the bulk of them in its user data field. Furthermore, the maximum size of the user data field is 65,536 octets, coincidentally the same size as an IP packet. ATM Forum Service Classes The ATM Forum looks at service definitions slightly differently than the ITU-T, as shown in Figure 6-10. Instead of the A-B-C-D services, the ATM Forum categorizes them as real-time and non-real-time services. Under the real-time category, they define constant-bit-rate services that demand fixed resources with guaranteed availability. They also define real-time VBR service, which provides for statistical multiplexed, variable bandwidth service allocated on demand. A further subset of real-time VBR is peak-allocated VBR, which guarantees constant loss and delay characteristics for all cells in that flow. Under the non-real-time service class, unspecified bit rate (UBR) is the first service category. UBR is often compared to IP in that it is a besteffort delivery scheme in which the network provides whatever bandwidth it has available, with no guarantees made. All recovery functions from lost cells are the responsibility of the end-user devices. UBR has two subcategories of its own. The first, non-real-time VBR (NRT-VBR), improves the impacts of cell loss and delay by adding a
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Transport Technologies
Transport Technologies
Service Descriptors PCR, CDVT Loss Yes Delay Yes
Bandwidth Yes Feedback No
Figure 6-10 ATM Forum service definitions.
VBR-RT VBR-NRT UBR ABR
PCR, CDVT, SCR, MBS PCR, CDVT, SCR, MBS PCR, CDVT PCR, CDVT, MCR
Yes Yes No Yes
Yes Yes No No
Yes Yes No Yes
No No No Yes
network resource reservation capability. Available bit rate (ABR), UBR s other subcategory, makes use of feedback information from the far end to manage loss and ensure fair access to and transport across the network. Each of the five classes makes certain guarantees with regard to cell loss, cell delay, and available bandwidth. Furthermore, each of them takes into account descriptors that are characteristic of each service described. These include the peak cell rate (PCR), the sustained cell rate (SCR), the minimum cell rate (MCR), cell delay variation tolerance (CDVT), and burst tolerance (BT). ATM Forum Specified Services The ATM Forum has identified a collection of services for which ATM is a suitable, perhaps even desirable, network technology. These include the cell relay service (CRS), the circuit emulation service (CES), voice and telephony over ATM (VTOA), the Frame Relay bearer service (FRBS), LAN emulation (LANE), multiprotocol over ATM (MPOA), and a collection of others. CRS is the most basic of the ATM services. It delivers precisely what its name implies: a raw pipe transport mechanism for cell-based data. As such, it does not provide any ATM bells and whistles, such as QoS discrimination. Nevertheless, it is the most commonly implemented ATM offering because of its lack of implementation complexity. CES gives service providers the capability to offer a selection of bandwidth levels by varying both the number of cells transmitted per second and the number of bytes contained in each cell. VTOA is a service that has yet to be clearly defined. The capability to transport voice calls across an ATM network is a nonissue, given the availability of Class A service. What is not clearly defined, however, are corollary services such as 800/888 calls, 900 service, 911 call-handling,
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