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Fundamentals of Optical Networking
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At their most basic level, optical networks require three fundamental components, as shown in Figure 6-15: a source of light, a medium over which to transport it, and a receiver for the light. Additionally, regenerators, optical amplifiers, and other pieces of equipment may be used in the circuit. We will examine each of these generic components in turn.
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Today the most common sources of light for optical systems are either light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes. Both are commonly used, although laser diodes have become more common for high-speed data applications because of their coherent signal. Although lasers have gone through several iterations over the years, including ruby rod and heliumneon, semiconductor lasers became the norm shortly after their introduction in the early 1960s because of their low cost and high stability. Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) LEDs come in two varieties: surfaceemitting LEDs and edge-emitting LEDs. Surface-emitting LEDs give off light at a wide angle and therefore do not lend themselves to the more coherent requirements of optical data systems because of the difficulty involved in focusing their emitted light into the core of the receiving fiber. Instead, they are often used as indicators and signaling devices. They are, however, quite inexpensive and are therefore commonly found. An alternative to the surface-emitting LED is the edge-emitting device. Edge emitters produce light at significantly narrower angles and have a smaller emitting area, which means that more of their emitted light can be focused into the core. They are typically faster devices than surface emitters, but do have a downside: they are temperature-sensitive
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Figure 6-15 Components of a typical optical network.
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Optical Amplifiers
Transmitter Receiver O-E-O
Optical Amplifiers
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Transport Technologies
6
and must therefore be installed in environmentally controlled devices to ensure the stability of the transmitted signal. Laser Diodes Laser diodes represent the alternative to LEDs. A laser diode has a very small emitting surface, usually no larger than a few microns in diameter, which means that a great deal of the emitted light can be directed into the fiber. Because they represent a coherent source, the emission angle of a laser diode is extremely narrow. It is the fastest of the three devices.
Optical Fiber
When Peter Schultz, Donald Keck, and Robert Maurer began their work at Corning to create a low-loss optical fiber, they did so using a newly crafted process called inside vapor deposition (IVD). Whereas most glass is manufactured by melting and reshaping silica, IVD deposits various combinations of carefully selected compounds on the inside surface of a silica tube. The tube becomes the cladding of the fiber; the vapordeposited compounds become the core. The compounds are typically silicon chloride (SiCl4) and oxygen (O2), which are reacted under heat to form a soft, sooty deposit of silicon dioxide (SiO2), as shown in Figure 6-16. In some cases, impurities such as germanium are added at this time to cause various effects in the finished product.
Figure 6-16 Creating a multilayer preform.
Soot SiCl4 O2 Soot
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Transport Technologies
Transport Technologies
In practice, the SiCl4 and O2 are pumped into the fused silica tube as gases. The tube is heated in a high-temperature lathe, causing the sooty deposit to collect on the inside surface of the tube. The continued heating of the tube causes the soot to fuse into a glass-like substance. This process can be repeated as many times as required to create a graded refractive index, if required. Ultimately, once the deposits are complete, the entire assembly is heated fiercely, which causes the tube to collapse, creating what is known in the optical fiber industry as a preform. An example of a preform is shown in Figure 6-17. An alternative manufacturing process is called outside vapor deposition (OVD). In the OVD process, the soot is deposited on the surface of a rotating ceramic cylinder in two layers. The first layer is the soot that will become the core; the second layer becomes the cladding. Ultimately, the rod and soot are sintered to create a preform. The ceramic is then removed, leaving behind the fused silica that will become the fiber. A number of other techniques can be used to create the preforms that are used to create fiber, but these are the principal techniques in use today. The next step is to convert the preform into optical fiber.
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