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Transport Technologies
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OH Absorption Peak First Window Total Loss Second Window
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Figure 6-20 The optical transmission domain.
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1200 Wavelength (nm)
been deployed because (1) loss is minimized in this region, and (2) dispersion minimums can be shifted here. The relatively new L band has enjoyed some early success as the next effective operating window. Notice also that Rayleigh scattering is shown to occur at or around 1,000 nm, while hydroxyl absorption by water occurs at 1,240 and 1,390 nm. Needless to say, network designers would be well served to avoid transmitting at any of the points on the graph where Rayleigh scattering, high degrees of loss, or hydroxyl absorption have the greatest degree of impact. Note also that dispersion, shown by the lower line, is at a minimum point in the second window, while loss, shown by the upper line, drops to a minimum point in the third window. In fact, dispersion is minimized in traditional single-mode fiber at 1,310 nm, whereas loss is at minimums at 1,550 nm. So, the obvious question becomes this: which one do you want to minimize: loss or dispersion Luckily, this choice no longer has to be made. Today, dispersion-shifted fibers (DSF) have become common. By modifying the manufacturing process, engineers can shift the point at which minimum dispersion occurs from 1,310 nm to 1,550 nm, causing it to coincide with the minimum loss point such that loss and dispersion occur at the same wavelength. Unfortunately, although this fixes one problem, it creates a new and potentially serious alternative problem. DWDM has become a mainstay technology for multiplying the available bandwidth in optical systems. When DWDM is deployed over dispersion-shifted fiber, serious non-
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L Band 1570-1620
Transport Technologies
Transport Technologies
linearities occur at the zero dispersion point, which effectively destroy the DWDM signal. Think about it: DWDM relies on the capability to channelize the available bandwidth of the optical infrastructure and maintain some degree of separation between the channels. If dispersion is minimized in the 1,559-nm window, then the channels will effectively overlay each other in DWDM systems. Specifically, a problem called fourwave mixing (FWM) creates sidebands that interfere with the DWDM channels, destroying their integrity. In response, fiber manufacturers have created non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF) that lowers the dispersion point to near zero, making it occur just outside of the 1,550nm window. This eliminates the nonlinear FWM problem.
Fiber Nonlinearities
A classic business quote, imminently applicable to the optical networking world, observes in its success lie the seeds of its own destruction. As the marketplace clamors for longer transmission distances with minimal amplification, more wavelengths per fiber, higher bit rates, and increased signal power, a rather ugly collection of transmission impairments, known as fiber nonlinearities, rises to challenge attempts to make them happen. These impairments go far beyond the simple concerns brought about by loss and dispersion; they represent a significant performance barrier. The special relationship that exists between transmission power and the refractive index of the medium gives rise to four service-affecting optical nonlinearities: self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), FWM, and intermodulation.
Self-Phase Modulation (SPM)
When SPM occurs, chromatic dispersion kicks in to create something of a technological double-whammy. As the light pulse moves down the fiber, its leading edge increases the refractive index of the core, which causes a shift toward the longer-wavelength, blue end of the spectrum. The trailing edge, on the other hand, decreases the refractive index of the core, causing a shift toward the shorter-wavelength, red end of the spectrum. This causes an overall spreading or smearing of the transmitted signal, a phenomenon known as chirp. It occurs in fiber systems that transmit a single pulse down the fiber and is proportional to the amount of
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