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chromatic dispersion in the fiber; the more chromatic dispersion, the more SPM. It is counteracted with the use of large effective area fibers.
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Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM)
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When multiple optical signals travel down the same fiber core, they both change the refractive index in direct proportion to their individual power levels. If the signals happen to cross, they will distort each other. Although XPM is similar to SPM, one significant difference exists: selfphase modulation is directly affected by chromatic dispersion, yet crossphase modulation is only minimally affected by it. Large effective area fibers can reduce the impact of XPM.
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FWM is the most serious of the power/refractive index-induced nonlinearities today because it has a catastrophic effect on DWDM-enhanced systems. Because the refractive index of fiber is nonlinear, and because multiple optical signals travel down the fiber in DWDM systems, a phenomenon known as third-order distortion can occur that seriously affects multichannel transmission systems. Third-order distortion causes harmonics to be created in large numbers that have the annoying habit of occurring where the actual signals are, resulting in their obliteration. FWM is directly related to DWDM. In DWDM fiber systems, multiple simultaneous optical signals are transmitted across an optical span. They are separated on an ITU-blessed standard transmission grid by as much as 100 GHz (although most manufacturers today have reduced that to 50 GHz or better). This separation ensures that they do not interfere with each other. Consider now the effect of dispersion-shifted fiber on DWDM systems. In DSF, signal transmission is moved to the 1,550-nm band to ensure that dispersion and loss are both minimized within the same window. However, minimal dispersion has a rather severe unintended consequence when it occurs in concert with DWDM. Because it reduces dispersion to near zero, it also prevents multichannel systems from existing because it does not enable proper channel spacing. FWM then becomes a serious problem. Several things can reduce the impact of FWM. As the dispersion in the fiber drops, the degree of FWM increases dramatically. In fact, it is worst
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at the zero-dispersion point. Thus, the intentional inclusion of a small amount of chromatic dispersion actually helps to reduce the effects of FWM. For this reason, fiber manufacturers sell NZDSF, which moves the dispersion point to a point near the zero point, thus ensuring that a small amount of dispersion creeps in to protect against FWM problems. Another factor that can minimize the impact of FWM is to widen the spacing between DWDM channels. This, of course, reduces the efficiency of the fiber by reducing the total number of available channels and is therefore not a popular solution, particularly because the trend in the industry is to move toward narrower channel spacing as a way to increase the total number of available channels. Already several vendors have announced spacing as narrow as 5 GHz. Finally, large effective area fibers tend to suffer less from the effects of FWM.
Intermodulation Effects
In the same way that cross-phase modulation results from interference between multiple simultaneous signals, intermodulation causes secondary frequencies to be created that are cross-products of the original signals being transmitted. Large effective area fibers can alleviate the symptoms of intermodulation.
Scattering Problems
Scattering within the silica matrix causes the second major impairment phenomenon. Two significant nonlinearities result: Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS). Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) SBS is a power-related phenomenon. As long as the power level of a transmitted optical signal remains below a certain threshold, usually on the order of three milliwatts, SBS is not a problem. The threshold is directly proportional to the fiber s effective area, and because DSF typically have smaller effective areas, they have lower thresholds. The threshold is also proportional to the width of the originating laser pulse; as the pulse gets wider, the threshold goes up. Thus, steps are often taken through a variety of techniques to artificially broaden the laser pulse. This can raise the threshold significantly, to as high as 40 milliwatts.
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