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It is always good to go back and review why we care about such things as dispersion-shifting and absorption issues. Remember that the key to keeping the cost of a network down is to reduce maintenance and the need to add hardware or additional fiber when bandwidth gets tight. DWDM, discussed in detail later, offers an elegant and relatively simple solution to the problem of the cost of bandwidth. However, its use is not
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Transport Technologies
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without cost. Multiwavelength systems will not operate effectively over DSF because of dramatic nonlinearities, so if DWDM is to be used, NZDSF must be deployed.
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Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
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When high-speed transport systems such as SONET and SDH were first introduced, the bandwidth that they made possible was unheard of. The early systems that operated at OC-3/STM-1 levels (155.52 Mbps) provided volumes of bandwidth that were almost unimaginable. As the technology advanced to higher levels, the market followed Say s Law, creating demand for the ever-more available volumes of bandwidth. There were limits, however. Today OC-48/STM-16 (2.5 Gbps) is extremely popular, but OC-192/STM-64 (10 Gbps) represents the practical upper limit of SONET s and SDH s transmission capabilities, given the limitations of existing time division multiplexing (TDM) technology. The alternative is to simply multiply the channel count, and that s where WDM comes into play. WDM is really nothing more than frequency division multiplexing (FDM), albeit at very high frequencies. The ITU has standardized a channel separation grid that centers around 193.1 THz, ranging from 191.1 THz to 196.5 THz. Channels on the grid are technically separated by 100 GHz, but many industry players today are using 50-GHz separation. The majority of WDM systems operate in the C-band (third window, 1,550 nm), which enables the close placement of channels and the reliance on EDFAs to improve signal strength. Older systems, which spaced the channels 200 GHz (1.6 nm) apart, were referred to simply as WDM systems, while the newer systems are referred to as Dense WDM systems because of their tighter channel spacing. Modern systems routinely pack 40- to 10-Gbps channels across a single fiber for an aggregate bit rate of 400 Gbps.
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How DWDM Works
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As Figure 6-22 illustrates, a WDM system consists of multiple input lasers, an ingress multiplexer, a transport fiber, an egress multiplexer, and, of course, customer receiving devices. If the system has eight
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Figure 6-22 DWDM channel separation.
channels, such as the one shown in the figure, it has eight lasers and eight receivers. The channels are separated by 100 GHz to avoid fiber nonlinearities or they are closer if the system supports the 50-GHz spacing. Each channel, sometimes referred to as a lambda (l, the Greek letter and universal symbol used to represent wavelength), is individually modulated, and ideally the signal strengths of the channels should be close to one another. Generally speaking, this is not a problem, because in DWDM systems the channels are closely spaced and therefore do not experience significant attenuation variation from channel to channel. Operators of DWDM-equipped networks face a significant maintenance issue. Consider a 16-channel DWDM system. This system has 16 lasers, 1 for each channel, which means that the service provider must maintain 16 spare lasers in case of a laser failure. The latest effort underway is the deployment of tunable lasers, which enable the laser to be tuned to any output wavelength, thus reducing the volume of spares that must be maintained and, by extension, the cost. So, what do we find in a typical WDM system A variety of components that include the following:
Multiplexers Combine multiple optical signals for transport across a single fiber Demultiplexers Disassemble the aggregate signal so that each signal component can be delivered to the appropriate optical receiver (PIN or APD) Active or passive switches or routers Direct each signal component in a variety of directions Filters Serve to provide wavelength selection Optical add-drop multiplexers Give the service provider the ability to pick up and drop off individual wavelength components at intermediate locations throughout the network
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