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Together these components make up the heart of the typical highbandwidth optical network. And why is DWDM so important Because of the cost differential that exists between a DWDM-enhanced network and a traditional network. To expand network capacity today by putting more fiber in the ground costs, on average, about $70K per mile. To add the same bandwidth using DWDM by changing out the endpoint electronics costs roughly one-sixth that amount. There is clearly a financial incentive to go with the WDM solution.
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Optical Switching and Routing
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DWDM facilitates the transport of massive volumes of data from a source to a destination. Once the data arrives at the destination, however, it must be terminated and redirected to its final destination on a lambda-by-lambda basis. This is done with switching and routing technologies.
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Switching versus Routing: What s the Difference
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A review of these two fundamental technologies is probably in order. The two terms are often used interchangeably, and a never-ending argument is underway about the differences between the two. The answer lies in the lower layers of the now-famous OSI Protocol Model. You will recall that OSI is a conceptual model used to study the step-by-step process of transmitting data through a network. It comprises seven layers, the lower three of which define the domain of the typical service provider. These layers, starting with the lowest in the seven-layer stack, are the Physical layer (layer one), the Data Link layer (layer two), and the Network layer (layer three). Layer one is responsible for defining the standards and protocols that govern the physical transmission of bits across a medium. SONET and SDH are both Physicallayer standards. Switching, which lies at layer 2 (the Data Link layer) of OSI, is usually responsible for establishing connectivity within a single network. It is a
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relatively low-intelligence function and is therefore accomplished quite quickly. Such technologies as ATM; Frame Relay; wireless access technologies such as FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA; and LAN access control protocols (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection [CSMA/CD] and token passing) are found at this layer. Routing, on the other hand, is a layer 3 (Network layer) function. It operates at a higher, more complex level of functionality and is therefore more complex. Routing concerns itself with the movement of traffic between subnetworks and therefore complements the efforts of the switching layer. ATM, Frame Relay, LAN protocols, and the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) are switching protocols. The Routing Internet Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) are routing protocols.
Switching in the Optical Domain
The principal form of optical switching is really nothing more than a sophisticated digital cross-connect system. In the early days of data networking, dedicated facilities were created by manually patching the end points of a circuit at a patch panel, thus creating a complete four-wire circuit. Beginning in the 1980s, digital cross-connect devices such as AT&T s Digital Access and Cross-Connect (DACS) became common, replacing the time-consuming, expensive, and error-prone manual process. The digital cross-connect is really a simple switch, designed to establish long-term temporary circuits quickly, accurately and inexpensively. Enter the world of optical networking. Traditional cross-connect systems worked fine in the optical domain, provided no problems were happening in the O-E-O conversion process. This, however, was one of the aspects of optical networking that network designers wanted to eradicate from their functional requirements. Thus was born the optical crossconnect switch. The first of these to arrive on the scene was Lucent Technologies LambdaRouter. Based on a switching technology called the MicroElectrical Mechanical System (MEMS), the LambdaRouter was the world s first all-optical cross-connect device. MEMS relies on micro-mirrors, an array of which is shown in Figure 6-23. The mirrors can be configured at various angles to ensure that
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