progress bar code in vb.net Figure 2-3 PC-tomainframe communications. in Software

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Figure 2-3 PC-tomainframe communications.
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Figure 2-4 Managing security.
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the user in Madrid is confidential, which means that it should probably be encrypted to protect its integrity. And because the message is large, the sender will probably compress it to reduce the time it takes to transmit it. Compression, which will be discussed in more detail later, is simply the process of eliminating redundant information from a file before it is transmitted or stored to make it easier to manage. Another problem has to do with the manner in which the information being transmitted is represented. The PC-based Eudora message encodes its characters using a 7-bit character set, the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). A sample of the ASCII codeset is shown later in Table 2-1. Mainframes, however, often use a different codeset called the Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC). The ASCII traffic must be converted to EBCDIC if the mainframe is to understand it, and vice versa, as shown in Figure 2-5.
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It s probably not a bad idea to review binary arithmetic for just a moment, since it seems to be one of the least understood details of data communications. I promise, this will not be painful. I just want to offer a quick explanation of the numbering scheme and the various codesets that result.
Figure 2-5 Code conversion.
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Modern computers are often referred to as digital computers because the values they use to perform their function are limited (remember, the word digital means discrete). Those values are nominally zero and one. In other words, a value can either be one or zero, on or off, positive or negative, presence of voltage or absence of voltage, or presence of light or absence of light. Two possible values exist for any given situation, and this type of system is called binary. The word means a system that comprises two distinct components or values. Computers operate using base 2 arithmetic, whereas humans use base 10. Let me take you back to second grade. When we count, we arrange our numbers in columns that have values based on multiples of the number 10, as shown in Figure 2-6. Here we see the number 6,783, written using the decimal numbering scheme. We easily understand the number as it is written because we are taught to count in base 10 from an early age. Computers, however, don t speak in base 10. Instead, they speak in base 2. Instead of having columns that are multiples of 10, they use columns that are multiples of two, as shown in Figure 2-7. In base 10, the columns are (reading from the right):
Ones Tens Hundreds Thousands Ten thousands Hundred thousands Millions And so on In base 2, the columns are
Ones Twos
Figure 2-6 Base 10 numbering scheme.
Thousands
Tens
6,783
Hundreds Ones
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Figure 2-7 Base 2 numbering scheme.
One Five Two thousand hundred twentyforty-eights twelves eights Thirtytwos
2
Eights
Twos
1101001111111
Four thousand ninety-sixes TwoOne hundred thousand fifty twenty-fours sixes Sixtyfours Sixteens Fours Ones
Fours Eights Sixteens Thirty-twos Sixty-fours One hundred twenty-eights Two hundred fifty-sixes Five hundred twelves One thousand twenty-fours And so on So our number, 6,783, would be written as follows in base two: 1101001111111
From right to left that s one 1, one 2, one 4, one 8, one 16, one 32, one 64, no 128, no 256, one 512, no 1,024, one 2,048, and one 4,096. Add them all up (1 2 4 8 16 32 64 512 2048 4096) and you should get 6,783. That s binary arithmetic. Most PCs today use the 7-bit ASCII character set shown in Table 2-1. The mainframe, however (remember the mainframe ), uses EBCDIC. What happens when a 7-bit ASCII PC sends information to an EBCDIC mainframe system that only understands 8-bit characters Clearly, problems would result. Something therefore has to take on the responsibility of translating between the two systems so that they can intelligibly transfer data.
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