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Figure 2-11 Physical agreements.
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arrive on the same pin that it wants to transmit on. Furthermore, an agreement must be reached on how information is to be physically represented, how and when it is to be transmitted, and how it is to be acknowledged. What happens if a very fast transmitter overwhelms the receive capabilities of a slower receiver Does the slower receiver have the capability, or even the right, to tell it to slow down Collectively, all of these problems pose what seem to be insurmountable challenges to the transmission of data from a source to a receiver. Although the process is obviously complex, steps have been taken to simplify it by breaking it into logical pieces. Those pieces, as we described earlier, are protocols. Collections of protocols, carefully selected to form functional groupings, are what make data communications work properly. Perhaps the best-known family of protocols is the International Organization for Standardization s Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model, usually called the OSI Model for short. Shown in Figure 2-12 and comprising seven layers, it provides a logical way to study and understand data communications and is based on the following simple rules. First, each of the seven layers must perform a clearly defined set of responsibilities that are unique to that layer to guarantee the requirement of functional modularity. Second, each layer depends upon the services of the layers above and below to do its own job, as we would expect, given the modular nature of the model. Third, the layers have no idea how the layers around them do what they do; they simply know that they do it. This is called transparency. Finally, there is nothing magic about the number seven. If the industry should decide that we need an eighth layer on the model, or that layer five is redundant, then the model will be changed. The key is functionality. An ongoing battle is taking place within the ranks of OSI Model pundits, for example, over whether both layers six and seven are required,
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Protocols
Protocols
Figure 2-12 OSI Model.
Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
because many believe them to be so similar functionally that one or the other is redundant. Others question whether layer five is needed, the functions of which are considered by many to be superfluous and redundant. Whether any changes are made is not important. The fact that changes can be made is what matters. It is important to understand that the OSI Model is nothing more than a conceptual way of thinking about data communications. It isn t hardware; it isn t software. It merely simplifies and groups the processes of data transmission so that they can be easily understood and manipulated. Let s look at the OSI Model in a little more detail (please refer to Figure 2-12). As we mentioned earlier, the model is a seven-layer construct within which each layer is tightly dependent upon the layers surrounding it. The Application layer, at the top of the model, speaks to the actual application process that creates the information to be transported by the network. It is closest to the customer and the customer s processes, and is therefore the most customizable and manipulable of all the layers. It is highly open to interpretation. On the other end of the spectrum, the Physical layer dwells within the confines of the actual network and is totally standards-dependent. There is minimal room here for interpretation. A pulse is either a one or a zero; there s nothing in between. Physical-layer standards therefore tend to be highly commoditized, while Application-layer standards tend to be highly specialized. This becomes extremely important as the service provider model shifts from delivering commodity bandwidth to providing
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