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Protocols
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only a path, but the best path, based on QoS parameters. This constitutes intelligent routing. Second, they should have some way of monitoring the network so that they always know its current operational conditions. Finally, should they encounter unavoidable congestion, the switches should have one or more ways to deal with it.
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Routing Protocols
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So, how are routing decisions made in a typical network Whether connectionless or connection-oriented, the routers and switches in the network must take into account a variety of factors to determine the best path for the traffic they manage. These factors fall into a broad category of rule sets called routing protocols. For reference purposes, please refer to the tree shown in Figure 2-32. Once the Transport layer has taken whatever steps are necessary to prepare the packets for their transmission across the network, they are passed to the Network layer. The Network layer has two primary responsibilities in the name of network integrity: routing and congestion control. Routing is the process of intelligently selecting the most appropriate route through the network for the packets. Congestion control is the process that ensures that the packets are minimally delayed (or at least equally delayed) as they make their way from the source to the destination. We will begin with a discussion of routing.
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Routing Protocols
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Figure 2-32 Routing Protocol Overview.
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Dynamic
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Static
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Distributed
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Centralized
Non-Isolated
Isolated
Distance Vector
Link State
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Protocols
Protocols
Routing Protocols
Routing protocols are divided into two main categories: static routing protocols and dynamic routing protocols. Static routing protocols are those that require a network administrator to establish and maintain them. If a routing table change is required, the network administrator must manually make the change. This ensures absolute security, but is labor-intensive and therefore less frequently used other than in highly secure environments (military or health care) or network architectures that are designed around static routing because the routes are relatively stable anyway (such as IBM s Systems Network Architecture [SNA] for example). More common are dynamic routing protocols, where network devices make their own decisions about optimum route selection. They do this in the following general way: they pay attention to the network around them and collect information from their neighbors about the best routes to particular destinations based on such parameters as the least number of hops, least delay, lowest cost, or highest bandwidth. The network devices then archive those bits of information in tables and selectively flush the tables periodically to ensure that the information contained in them is always as current as possible. Because dynamic routing protocols assume intelligence in the switch and can therefore reduce the amount of human intervention required, they are commonly used and are, in fact, the most widely deployed routing protocols. Dynamic routing protocols are further divided into two subcategories: centralized and distributed. Centralized routing protocols concentrate the route decision-making processes in a single node, thus ensuring that all nodes in the network receive the same and most current information possible. When a switch or router needs routing information that is not contained in its own table, it sends a request to the root node asking for direction. This technique has significant downsides, however; by concentrating the decision-making capability in a single node, the likelihood of a catastrophic failure is dramatically increased. If that node fails, the entire network s capability to seek optimal routing decisions fails. Second, because all nodes in the network must go to that central device for routing instructions, a significant choke point can result. Several options can reduce the vulnerability of a single point of failure. The first, of course, is to distribute the routing function. This conflicts with the concept of centralized routing, but only somewhat. Consider the Internet, for example. It uses a sort of hybrid of centralized and distributed routing protocols in its Domain Name Server (DNS)
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