progress bar code in vb.net Figure 2-38 The TCP/IP Protocol Suite. in Software

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Figure 2-38 The TCP/IP Protocol Suite.
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Application Services Layer
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PING Transmission control Protocol (TCP) User Datagram Protocol (UDP) RIP, OSPF, ICMP ARP RARP InARP Internet Protocol (IP)
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Protocols
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The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) layer is responsible for message integrity, similar to the service provided by OSI s Transport layer. It is extremely capable and has the capability to recover from virtually any network failure imaginable to ensure the integrity of the messages it is designed to protect. For situations where the high degree of protection provided by TCP (and its attendant overhead) is considered to be overkill, a corollary protocol called UDP is also available at this layer. It provides a connectionless network service and is used in situations where the transported traffic is less critical and where the overhead inherent in TCP poses a potential problem due to congestion. The uppermost layer in the TCP/IP stack is called the Application Services layer. This is where the utility of the stack becomes obvious because this is where the actual applications are found such as HTTP, FTP, Telnet, and the other utilities that make the Internet useful to the user. The point of all these protocols is to give a designer the ability to create a network that will transport the customer s voice, data, video, images, or MP3 files with whatever level of service quality the traffic demands. We now know that data communications protocols make it possible to transport all types of traffic with guaranteed service. Let s turn our attention now to the network itself. In the chapters that follow, we will discuss the history of the most remarkable technological achievement on earth, the telephone network. Later we will discuss the anatomy of a typical data network and the technologies found there.
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Source: Telecom Crash Course
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CHAPTER
Telephony
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Telephony
3
In this chapter we will explore telephony and the telephone network. Described as the largest machine ever built, the telephone network is an impressive thing. We begin with some history, then explore the network itself, and finally explore telephony service-how it works, how it makes its way across the network, and how it is managed. We will examine the process of voice digitization, followed by the multiplexing and high-speed transport of voice through such technologies as Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). Some people feel that voice is something of an anachronism and has no place in a book about the new, slick world of telecommunications. I disagree; without an understanding of how the voice network operates, it is impossible to understand or appreciate how data networks operate. This chapter is designed to bridge the gap between the two. We begin our tale in New York City.
Miracle on Second Avenue
February 26th, 1975 was a business-as-usual day at New York Telephone s lower Manhattan switching center. Located at Second Avenue and 13th Street, the massive 11-story building was the telephony nerve center for 12 Manhattan exchanges that provided service to 300 New York City blocks, including 104,000 subscribers and 170,000 telephones. Within the service area were 6 hospitals, 11 firehouses, 3 post offices, 1 police station, 9 schools, and 3 universities. The building was massive, but like most central offices (COs), it was completely invisible to the public. It was just a big, windowless structure that belonged to the telephone company. No one really knew what went on in there; nobody cared. When night fell, most of the building s employees went home, leaving a small crew to handle maintenance tasks and minor service problems. The night was quiet; work in the building was carried out routinely. It was going to be a boring evening. At 12:30, just after midnight, a relatively inconsequential piece of power equipment in the building s sub-basement cable vault shorted and spit a few errant sparks into the air. It caused no alarms because it didn t actually fail. One of the sparks, however, fell on a piece of insulation and began to smolder. The insulation melted and began to burn, changing from a smoldering spot on the surface of a cable to a full-blown fire. Soon the entire cable vault was aflame.
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