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Figure 3-41 Horizontal side of MDF .
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Figure 3-42 Dick Pecor testing cable pair on horizontal side of MDF .
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determine whether the called party is locally hosted. If the number is in the same switch, the call is established. If it resides in another switch, the task is a bit more complex. First, the local switch must pass the call on to the local tandem switch, which provides access to the points of presence (POPs) of the various longdistance carriers that serve the area. The tandem switch typically does not connect directly to subscribers; it connects to other switches only. The tandem switch then hands the call off to the long-distance carrier, which transports it over the long-distance network to the carrier s switch in the remote (receiving) office.
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SS7 s influence once again becomes obvious here. One of the problems that occurred in earlier telephone system designs was the following. When a subscriber placed a call, the local switch handed the call off to the tandem, which in turn handed the call off to the long-distance provider. The long-distance provider seized a trunk, over which it transported the dialed digits to the receiving central office. The signaling information therefore traveled over the path designed to produce revenue for the telephone company, a process known as in-band signaling. As long as the called party was home, and wasn t on the phone, the call would go through as planned and revenue would flow. If they weren t home, however, or if they were on the phone, then no revenue was generated. Furthermore, the network resources that another caller might have used to place a call were not available to them, because they were tied up transporting call setup data, which produces no revenue. SS7 changes all that. With SS7, the signaling data travels across a dedicated packet network from the calling party to the called party. SS7 verifies the availability of the called party s line, reserves it, and then, and only then, seizes a talk path. Once the talk path has been created, it rings the called party s phone and places a ringing tone in the caller s ear. As soon as the called party answers, SS7 silently bails out until one end or the other hangs up. At that point, it returns the path to the pool of available network resources.
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We have not discussed the manner in which offices are connected to one another. As Figure 3-43 illustrates, an optical fiber ring with add-drop multiplexers interconnects the central offices so that interoffice traffic can be safely and efficiently transported. The switches have trunk units (TUs) that connect the back side, called the trunk side, of the switch to the wide area network (WAN), in this case the optical ring. Trunks that interconnect offices have historically been four-wire copper, coax or microwave facilities (a pair in each direction). Today they are largely optical, but are still referred to as four-wire because of their twoway nature. An interesting point should be made about trunks. In the 1960s and early 1970s, most interoffice trunks were analog rather than digital. To signal, they used single frequency tones. Because these trunks did not
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Figure 3-43 Typical network showing fiber ring interconnectin g offices.
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talk directly to customers, there was no reason to worry about a human voice inadvertently emitting a sound that could be misconstrued as a dialing tone. There was therefore no reason to use DTMF dialing. Instead, trunk signaling was performed using single frequency tones. Specifically, if a switch wanted to seize a long-distance trunk, it issued a single-frequency 2600-Hz tone, which would signal the seizure to take place. Once the trunk seizure had occurred, the dialed digits could be outpulsed and the call would proceed as planned. In 1972, John Draper, better known by his hacker name Captain Crunch, determined that the toy plastic bosun s whistle that came packed in boxes of Cap n Crunch cereal emitted, you guessed it, 2600 Hz. Anyone who knew this could steal long-distance service from AT&T by blowing the whistle at the appropriate time during call setup. Before long, word of this capability became common knowledge and Cap n Crunch cereal became the breakfast food of choice for hackers all over the country. Soon hackers everywhere were constructing blue boxes, small oscillators built from cheap parts that would emit 2600 Hz and make possible the kind of access that Draper and his cohorts were engaged in. In fact, Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, both founders of Apple, were early blue box users and according to legend used the money they made building blue boxes to fund the company that became Apple.
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