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fact that they reduce the cost of provisioning network access to far-flung neighborhoods. This is the same concept; instead of a residential neighborhood, we re provisioning a corporate neighborhood. The most common form of multiplexed access and transport is T-Carrier, or E-Carrier outside the United States. Let s take a few minutes to describe them.
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Framing and Formatting in T-1
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The standard T-Carrier multiplexer, shown in Figure 3-45, accepts inputs from 24 sources, converts the inputs to PCM bytes, and then time division multiplexes the samples over a shared four-wire facility, as shown in Figure 3-46. Each of the 24 input channels yields an 8-bit sample, in round-robin fashion, once every 125 microseconds (8,000 times per second). This yields an overall bit rate of 64 Kbps for each channel (8 bits per sample 8,000 samples per second). The multiplexer gathers one 8-bit sample from each of the 24 channels and aggregates them into a 192-bit frame. To the frame it adds a frame bit, which expands the frame to a 193-bit entity. The frame bit is used for a variety of purposes that will be discussed in a moment. The 193-bit frames of data are transmitted across the four-wire facility at the standard rate of 8,000 frames per second, for an overall T-1 bit rate of 1.544 Mbps. Keep in mind that 8 Kbps of the bandwidth consists
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Figure 3-45 T-Carrier multiplexer channel banks, showing DS-0 cards.
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Figure 3-46 A Time Division Multiplexer in action.
F 8-bits per sample, 24 samples per frame + frame bit = 193 bits. 8,000 frames are generated per second, yielding 1.544 Mbps.
of frame bits (one frame bit per frame, 8,000 frames per second); only 1.536 Mbps belong to the user.
Beginnings: D1 Framing
The earliest T-Carrier equipment was referred to as D1 and was considerably more rudimentary in function than modern systems (see Figure 3-47). In D1, every 8-bit sample carried 7 bits of user information (bits 1 through 7) and 1 bit for signaling (bit 8). The signaling bits were used for exactly that: indications of the status of the line (on-hook, offhook, busy, high and dry, and so on), while the 7 user bits carried encoded voice information. Because only 7 of the 8 bits were available to the user, the result was considered to be less than toll quality (128 possible values, rather than 256). The frame bits, which in modern systems indicate the beginning of the next 192-bit frame of data, toggled back and forth between 0 and 1.
Evolution: D4
As time went on and the stability of network components improved, an improvement on D1 was sought after and found. Several options were developed, but the winner emerged in the form of the D4 or superframe format. Rather than treat a single 193-bit frame as the transmission entity, superframe gangs together 12 193-bit frames into a 2,316-bit entity, shown in Figure 3-48, that obviously includes 12 frame bits.
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Figure 3-47 D1 framing.
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Frame Bits
User Bits
Figure 3-48 Superframe (D4) framing.
Superframe: 12 193 = 2,316 bits
Please note that the bit rate has not changed; we have simply changed our view of what constitutes a frame. Since we now have a single (albeit large) frame, we clearly don t need 12 frame bits to frame it; consequently, some of them can be redeployed for other functions. In superframe, the 6 odd-numbered frame bits are referred to as terminal framing bits and are used to synchronize the channel bank equipment. The odd framing bits, on the other hand, are called signal framing bits and indicate to the receiving device where robbed-bit signaling occurs. In D1, the system reserved 1 bit from every sample for its own signaling purposes, which succeeded in reducing the user s overall throughput. In D4, that is no longer necessary; instead, we signal less frequently, and
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