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Figure 3-59 SONET network regions and functional devices.
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and a number of other informational components that have to do with the end-to-end transmission of the unit of data. The packaged information, now known as a payload, is inserted into a SONET frame, and at that point another layer of control and management information is added, called line overhead. Line overhead is responsible for managing the movement of the payload from multiplexer to multiplexer. To do this, it adds a set of bytes that enable receiving devices to find the payload inside the SONET frame. As you will learn a bit later, the payload can occasionally wander around inside the frame due to the vagaries of the network. These bytes enable the system to track that movement. In addition to these tracking bytes, the line overhead includes bytes that monitor the integrity of the network and can add a switch to a backup transmission span if a failure in the primary span occurs. Line overhead also includes another bit-error-checking byte, a robust channel for transporting network management information, and a voice communications channel that enables technicians at either end of the line to plug in with a handset (sometimes called a butt-in or buttinski) and communicate while troubleshooting. The final step in the process is to add a layer of overhead that enables the intermediate repeaters to find the beginning of and synchronize a received frame. This overhead, called the section overhead, contains a unique initial framing pattern at the beginning of the frame, an identifier for the payload signal being carried, another bit-error check, a voice communications channel, and another dedicated channel for network management information, similar to but smaller than the one identified in the line overhead. The result of all this overhead, much of which seems like overkill (and in many peoples minds is), is that the transmission of a SONET frame containing user data can be identified and managed with tremendous granularity from the source all the way to the destination. So, to summarize, the hard little kernel of DS-3 traffic is gradually surrounded by three layers of overhead information, as shown in Figure 3-60, that help it achieve its goal of successfully transiting the network. The section overhead is used at every device the signal passes through, including multiplexers and repeaters, the line overhead is only used between multiplexers, and the information contained in the path overhead is only used by the source and destination multiplexers. The intermediate multiplexers don t care about the specific nature of the payload, because they don t have to terminate or interpret it.
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Figure 3-60 Layers of SONET overhead surround the payload prior to transmission.
3
DS-3
The SONET Frame
Keep in mind once again that we are doing nothing more complicated than building a T-1 frame with an attitude. Recall that the T-1 frame is comprised of 24 8-bit channels (samples from each of 24 incoming data streams) plus a single bit of overhead. In SONET, we have a similar construct: a lot more channel capacity, and a lot more overhead, but the same functional concept. The fundamental SONET frame is shown in Figure 3-61 and is known as a Synchronous Transport Signal, Level One (STS-1). It is 9 bytes tall and 90 bytes wide, for a total of 810 bytes of transported data, including both user payload and overhead. The first three columns of the frame are the section and line overhead, known collectively as the transport overhead. The bulk of the frame itself, to the left, is the synchronous payload envelope (SPE), which is the container area for the user data that is being transported. The data, previously identified as the payload, begins somewhere in the payload envelope. The actual starting point will vary, as we will see later. The path overhead begins when the payload begins; because it is unique to the payload itself, it travels closely with the payload. The first byte of the payload is in fact the first byte of the path overhead.
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