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Figure 3-62 Byte inter-leaving in SONET.
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The technique described previously is called a single-stage multiplexing process, because the incoming payload components are combined in a single step. Also, a two-stage technique is commonly used. For example, an STS-12 can be created in one of two ways. Twelve STS-1s can be combined in a single-stage process to create the byte-interleaved STS-12; alternatively, four groups of three STS-1s can be combined to form four STS-3s, which can then be further combined in a second stage to create a single STS-12. Obviously, two-stage multiplexing is more complex than its single-stage cousin, but both are used.
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NOTE: The overall bit rate of the STS-N system is N STS-1. However, the maximum bandwidth that can be transported is STS-1, but N of them can be transported. This is analogous to a channelized T-1.
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Let s go back to our Fast Ethernet example mentioned earlier. In this case, 51.84 Mbps is inadequate for our purposes, because we have to transport the 100-Mbps Ethernet signal. For this, we need what is known as a concatenated signal. One thing you can say about SONET is that it doesn t hurt your polysyllabic vocabulary.
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On the long, lonesome stretches of outback highway in Australia, unsuspecting car drivers often encounter a devilish vehicle known as a road train. Imagine an 18-wheel tractor-trailer (see the top drawing in Figure 3-63 for a remarkable illustration) barreling down the highway at 80 miles per hour, but now imagine that it has six trailers-in effect, a 98wheeler. These things give passing a whole new meaning. If a road train is rolling down the highway pulling three 50-foot trailers (see the middle drawing in Figure 3-63), then it has the capability to transport 150 feet of cargo, but only if the cargo is segmented into 50-foot chunks. But what if the trucker wants to transport a 150-foot-long item In that case, a special trailer must be installed that provides room for the 150-foot payload (see the bottom drawing in Figure 3-63). If you understand the difference between the second and third drawings, then you understand the difference between an STS-N and an STSNc. The word concatenate means to string together, which is exactly what we do when we need to create what is known as a super-rate frame -in other words, a frame capable of transporting a payload that requires more bandwidth than an STS-1 can provide, such as our 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet frame. In the same way that an STS-N is analogous to a channelized T-1, an STS-Nc is analogous to an unchannelized T-1. In both cases, the customer is given the full bandwidth that the pipe provides; the difference lies in how the bandwidth is parceled out to the user.
Overhead Modifications in STS-Nc Frames
When we transport multiple STS-1s in an STS-N frame, we assume that they may arrive from different sources. As a result, each frame is inserted into the STS-N frame with its own unique set of overhead.
Figure 3-63 Australian road trains and SONET transport.
STS-1 Trucking
STS-3 Trucking
STS-3 Trucking
STS-3 Trucking
STS-3c Trucking
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When we create a concatenated frame, though, the data that will occupy the combined bandwidth of the frame derives from the same source. If we pack a 100-Mbps Fast Ethernet signal into a 155.53-Mbps STS-3c frame, there s only one signal to pack. It s pretty obvious that we don t need three sets of overhead to guide a single frame through the maze of the network. For example, each frame has a set of bytes that keeps track of the payload within the synchronous payload envelope. Because we only have one payload, therefore we can eliminate two of them. The path overhead that is unique to the payload can also similarly be reduced, since a column of it exists for each of the three formerly individual frames. In the case of the pointer that tracks the floating payload, the first pointer continues to perform that function; the others are changed to a fixed binary value that is known to receiving devices as a concatenation indication. The details of these bytes will be covered later in the overhead section.
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