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Before launching into a functional description of SDH, it would be good to first cover the differences in naming conventions between the two. This will help to dispel confusion (hopefully!). The fundamental SONET unit of transport uses a 9-row by 90-column frame that comprises 3 columns of section and line overhead, 1 column of path overhead, and 87 columns of payload. The payload, which is primarily user data, is carried in a payload envelope that can be formatted in various ways to make it carry a variety of payload types. For example, multiple SONET STS-1 frames can be combined to create higher-rate systems for transporting multiple STS-1 streams, or a single higher-rate stream created from the combined bandwidth of the various multiplexed components. Conversely, SONET can transport subrate payloads, known as virtual tributaries, which operate at rates slower than the fundamental STS-1 SONET rate. When this is done, the payload envelope is divided into virtual tributary groups, which can in turn transport a variety of virtual tributary types. In the SDH world, similar words apply, but they are different enough that they should be discussed. As you will see, SDH uses a fundamental transport container that is three times the size of its SONET counterpart. It is a 9-row by 270-column frame that can be configured into one of five container types, typically written C-n(where C means container).
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N can be 11, 12, 2, 3, or 4; they are designed to transport a variety of payload types. When an STM-1 is formatted for the transport of virtual tributaries (known as virtual containers in the SDH world), the payload pointers must be modified. In the case of a payload that is carrying virtual containers, the pointer is known as an Administrative Unit type 3 (AU-3). If the payload is not structured to carry virtual containers but is instead intended for the transport of higher rate payloads, then the pointer is known as an Administrative Unit type 4 (AU-4). Generally speaking, an AU-3 is typically used for the transport of North American Digital Hierarchy payloads; AU-4 is used for European signal types.
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The SDH Frame
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To understand the SDH frame structure, it is first helpful to understand the relationship between SDH and SONET. Functionally, they are identical. In both cases, the intent of the technology is to provide a globally standardized transmission system for high-speed data. SONET is indeed optimized for the T-1-heavy North American market, whereas SDH is more applicable to Europe. Beyond that, however, the overhead and design considerations of the two are virtually identical. However, some key differences can be seen. Perhaps the greatest difference between the two lies in the physical nature of the frame. A SONET STS-1 frame comprises 810 total bytes for an overall aggregate bit rate of 51.84 Mbps, perfectly adequate for the North American 44.736-Mbps DS-3. An SDH STM-1 frame, however, designed to transport a 139.264-Mbps European E-4 or a CEPT-4 signal, must be larger if it is to accommodate that much bandwidth. It clearly won t fit in the limited space available in an STS-1. An STM-1, then, operates at a fundamental rate of 155.52 Mbps, enough for the bandwidth requirements of the E-4. This should be where the d j vu starts to kick in. Perceptive readers will remember that 155.52 Mbps number from our discussions of the SONET STS-3, which offers exactly the same bandwidth. An STM-1 frame is shown in Figure 3-67. It is a byte-interleaved, 9-row by 270-column frame, with the first 9 columns devoted to overhead and the remaining 261 devoted to payload transport. A comparison of the bandwidth between SONET and SDH systems is also interesting. The fundamental SDH signal is exactly three times the bandwidth of the fundamental SONET signal, and this relationship continues all the way up the hierarchy.
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