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Figure 3-67 An SDH STM-1 frame.
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The overhead in an STM frame is very similar to that of an STS-1 frame, although the nomenclature varies somewhat. Instead of section, line, and path overhead to designate the different regions of the network that the overhead components address, SDH uses the regenerator section overhead (RSOH), the multiplex section overhead (MSOH), and path overhead, as shown in Figure 3-68. The RSOH occupies the first three rows of nine bytes, and the multiplex section the final five. Row four is reserved for the pointer. As in SONET, the path overhead floats gently on the payload tides, rising and falling in response to phase shifts. Functionally, these overhead components are identical to their SONET counterparts.
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Overhead Details
Because an STM-1 is three times as large as an STS-1, it has three times the overhead capacity, and nine columns instead of three (plus path overhead). The first row of the RSOH is its SONET counterpart, with the exception of the last two bytes, which are labeled as being reserved for
Regenerator Section Overhead Segments
Figure 3-68 SDH Overhead.
Mux R R
Intermediate Mux Mux
Multiplex Section Overhead
Multiplex Section Overhead
Path Overhead
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national use and are specific to the Post, Telephone, and Telegraph (PTT) administration that implements the network. In SONET, they are not yet assigned. The second row is different from SONET in that it has three bytes reserved for media-dependent implementations (differences in the actual transmission medium, whether copper, coaxial, or fiber) and the final two are reserved for national use. As before, they are not yet definitively assigned in the SONET realm. The final row of the RSOH also sports two bytes reserved for mediadependent information while they are reserved in SONET. All other regenerator section/section overhead functions are identical between the two. The MSOH in the SDH frame is almost exactly the same as that of the SONET line overhead, with one exception. Row nine of the SDH frame has two bytes reserved for national administration use. They are reserved in the SONET world. The pointer in an SDH frame is conceptually identical to that of a SONET pointer, although it has some minor differences in nomenclature. In SDH, the pointer is referred to as an Administrative Unit (AU) pointer, referring to the standard naming convention described earlier. SONET and SDH were originally rolled out to replace the T1 and E1 hierarchies, which were suffering from demands for bandwidth beyond what they were capable of delivering. Their principal deliverable was voice, and lots of it. Let s take a moment now to describe the process of voice digitization, still a key component of network transport.
Voice Digitization
The goal of digitizing the human voice for transport across an all-digital network grew out of work performed at Bell Laboratories shortly after the turn of the century. That work led to a discrete understanding of not only the biological nature and spectral makeup of the human voice, but also to a better understanding of language, sound patterns, and the sounded emphases that comprise spoken language.
The Nature of Voice
A typical voice signal comprises frequencies that range from approximately 30 Hz to 10 KHz. Most of the speech energy, however, lies between 300 Hz and 3,300 Hz, the so-called voice band. Experiments
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have shown that the frequencies below 1 KHz provide the bulk of recognizability and intelligibility, whereas the higher frequencies provide richness, articulation, and natural sound to the transmitted signal. The human voice comprises a remarkably rich mix of frequencies, and this richness comes at a considerable price. In order for telephone networks to transmit voice s entire spectrum of frequencies, significant network bandwidth must be made available to every ongoing conversation. A substantial price tag is attached to bandwidth, however; it is a finite commodity within the network, and the more of it that is consumed, the more it costs.
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