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The process of converting analog voice to a digital representation in the modern network is a logical and straightforward process. It comprises four distinct steps: Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) sampling, in which the amplitude of the incoming analog wave is sampled every
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125 microseconds; companding, during which the values are weighted toward those most receptive to the human ear; quantization, in which the weighted samples are given values on a nonlinear scale; and finally encoding, during which each value is assigned a distinct binary value. Each of the stages of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) will now be discussed in detail.
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Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
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Thanks to the work performed by Harry Nyquist at Bell Laboratories in the 1920s, we know that to optimally represent an analog signal as a digitally encoded bitstream, the analog signal must be sampled at a rate that is equal to twice the bandwidth of the channel over which the signal is to be transmitted. Since each analog voice channel is allocated 4 KHz of bandwidth, it follows that each voice signal must be sampled at twice that rate, or 8,000 samples per second. In fact, that is precisely what happens in T-Carrier systems, which we now use to illustrate our example. The standard T-Carrier multiplexer accepts inputs from 24 analog channels, as shown in Figure 3-73. Each channel is sampled in turn every one-eight thousandth of a second in a round-robin fashion, resulting in the generation of 8,000 pulse amplitude samples from each channel every second. The sampling rate is important. If the sampling rate is too high, too much information is transmitted, and bandwidth is wasted; if the sampling rate is too low, then we run the risk of aliasing. Aliasing is the interpretation of the sample points as a false waveform, due to the paucity of samples.
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Figure 3-73 Time division multiplexing.
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This PAM process represents the first stage of PCM, the process by which an analog baseband signal is converted to a digital signal for transmission across the T-Carrier network. This first step is shown in Figure 3-74. The second stage of PCM, shown in Figure 3-75, is called quantization. In quantization, we assign values to each sample within a constrained range. For illustration purposes, imagine what we now have before us. We have replaced the continuous analog waveform of the signal with a series of amplitude samples that are close enough together that we can discern the shape of the original wave from their collective amplitudes. Imagine also that we have graphed these samples in such a way that the wave of sample points meanders above and below an established zero point on the x-axis, so that some of the samples have positive values and others are negative, as shown. The amplitude levels enable us to assign values to each of the PAM samples, although a glaring problem with this technique should be obvious to the careful reader. Very few of the samples actually line up exactly with the amplitudes delineated by the graphing process. In fact, most of them fall between the values, as shown Figure 3-75. It doesn t take much of an intuitive leap to see that several of the samples will be assigned the same digital value by the coder-decoder (CODEC) that performs this function, yet they are clearly not the same amplitude. This inaccuracy in the measurement method results in a problem known as quantizing
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