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ure 1-13. The left side of the graph contains a lower frequency signal component, while a higher frequency component appears to its right. We can use this technique in the same way we used AM: If we let a high-frequency component represent a zero, and a low-frequency component represent a one, then I can transmit our 00001111 series by transmitting four high-frequency signals followed by four low-frequency signals. An interesting historical point about FM: The technique was invented by radio pioneer Edwin Armstrong in 1933. Armstrong, shown in Figure 1-14, created FM as a way to overcome the problem of noisy radio transmission. Prior to FM s arrival, AM was the only technique available and it relied on modulation of the loudness of the signal and the inherent noise to make it stronger. FM did not rely on amplitude, but rather on frequency modulation, and was therefore much cleaner and offered significantly higher fidelity than AM radio. Many technical historians of World War II believe that Armstrong s invention of FM transmission played a pivotal role in the winning of the war. When WW II was in full swing, FM technology was only available to Allied forces. AM radio, the basis for most military
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Figure 1-13 Frequency modulation.
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Figure 1-14 Edwin Armstrong (photo courtesy Lucent Bell Laboratories).
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communications at the time, could be jammed by simply transmitting a powerful signal that overloaded the transmissions of military radios. FM, however, was not available to the Axis powers and, therefore, could not be jammed as easily.
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Phase Modulation
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Phase modulation (PM) is a little more difficult to understand than the other two modulation techniques. Phase is defined mathematically as the fraction of a complete cycle elapsed as measured from a particular reference point. Consider the drawing shown in Figure 1-15. The two waves shown in the diagram are exactly 90 degrees out of phase of each other because they do not share a common start point wave B begins 90 degrees later than wave A. In the same way that we used amplitude and frequency to represent zeroes and ones, we can manipulate the phase of the wave to represent digital data.
Digital Signaling
Data can be transmitted in a digital fashion as well. Instead of a smoothly undulating wave crashing on the computer beach, we can use
Figure 1-15 Phase modulation.
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an approximation of the wave to represent the data. This technique is called digital signaling. In digital signaling, an interesting mathematical phenomenon, called the Fourier Series, is called into play to create what most people call a square wave, shown in Figure 1-16. In the case of digital signaling, the Fourier Series is used to approximate the square nature of the waveform. The details of how the series actually works are beyond the scope of this book, but suffice it to say that by mathematically combining the infinite series of odd harmonics of a fundamental wave, the ultimate result is a squared off shape that approximates the square wave that commonly depicts data transmission. This technique is called digital signaling, as opposed to the amplitude, frequency, and phasedependent signaling techniques used in analog systems. In digital signaling, zeroes and ones are represented as either the absence or presence of voltage on the line, and in some cases by either positive or negative voltage or both. Figure 1-17, for example, shows a technique in which a zero is represented by the presence of positive voltage, while a one is represented as zero voltage. This is called a unipolar signaling scheme. Figure 1-18 shows a different technique, in which a zero is represented as positive voltage, while a one is represented as negative voltage. This is called a non-return to zero signaling scheme, because zero voltage has no value in this technique. Finally, Figure 1-19 demonstrates a bipolar system. In this technique, the presence of voltage represents a one, but notice that every other one is opposite in polarity from the one that preceded it and the one that follows it. Zeroes, meanwhile, are represented as zero voltage. This technique, called Alternate Mark Inversion, or AMI, is commonly used in T- and E-Carrier systems for reasons that will be discussed later.
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