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Human speech has many measurable (and therefore predictable) characteristics, one of which is a tendency to have embedded pauses. As a rule, people do not spew out a series of uninterrupted sounds. They tend to pause for emphasis, to collect their thoughts, or to reword a phrase while the other person listens quietly on the other end of the line. When speech technicians monitor these pauses, they discover that during considerably more than half of the total connect time the line is silent. Digital Speech Interpolation (DSI) takes advantage of this characteristic silence to drastically reduce the bandwidth required for a single channel. Whereas 24 channels can be transported over a typical T-1 facility, DSI enables as many as 120 conversations to be carried over the same circuit. The format is proprietary and requires the setting aside of a certain amount of bandwidth for overhead. A form of statistical multiplexing lies at the heart of DSI s functionality. Standard T-Carrier is a TDM scheme in which channel ownership is assured. A user assigned to channel three will always own channel three, regardless of whether they are actually using the line. In DSI, channels are not owned. Instead, large numbers of users share a pool of available channels. When a user starts to talk, the DSI system assigns an available timeslot to that user and notifies the receiving end of the assignment. This system works well when the number of users is large, because statistical probabilities are more accurate and indicative of behavior in larger populations than in smaller ones. DSI has a downside, of course, and it comes in several forms. Competitive clipping occurs when more people start to talk than there are available channels, resulting in someone being unable to talk. Connection clipping occurs when the receiving end fails to learn which channel a conversation has been assigned within a reasonable amount of time, resulting in signal loss. Two approaches have been created to address these problems, both of which are widely utilized in DSI systems. In the case of competitive clipping, the system intentionally clips off the front end of the initial word of the second person who speaks. This technique is not optimal, but does prevent the loss of the conversation and also obviates the problem of clipping out the middle of a conversation, which would be more difficult for the speakers to recover from. The loss of an initial syllable or two can be mentally reconstructed far more easily than sounds in the middle of a sentence.
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A second technique for recovering from clipping problems is to temporarily reduce the encoding rate. The typical encoding rate for DSI is 32 Kbps. In certain situations, the encoding rate may be reduced to 24 Kbps, thus freeing up significant bandwidth for additional channels.
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A few years ago, while filming a video about telephony on location in Texas, I interviewed a small town sheriff about his use of telecommunications technology in his job. I wanted to know how it has changed the way he does his job. Well, sir, he began, puffing out his chest and sticking his thumbs into his waistband, we use telecommunications all the time. We use our radios and cell phones in the cars, and our telephones there to talk here in town and for long distance. And now, he said, patting a fax machine on his desk, we ve got backup. I wasn t sure what he meant by that, so I asked. We ve always had trouble with the phones goin out around here, and that was a bad thing. Can t very well do our job if we can t talk. But now we ve got this here fax machine. I was puzzled. I was missing his point, so I probed a little deeper. Don t you get it, son Before, if we lost the phones, we were like fish outta water. Now, I know that if the phones go down, I can always send a fax. Unfortunately, many peoples understanding of the inner workings of the telephone network is at about the same level as the understanding of the sheriff (who was a wonderful guy, by the way. I set him straight on his understanding of the telephone network and he treated me to the best chicken fried steak I have ever eaten). Hopefully, this chapter and those that follow are helping to lift the haze a bit. We will return to the central office several times as we examine the data transport side of telecommunications, but for now, on to access.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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