progress bar code in vb.net Figure 4-16 A Bus-based LAN. in Software

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Figure 4-16 A Bus-based LAN.
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Figure 4-17 A ring-based LAN.
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Figure 4-18 A star-wired LAN.
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Berkeley Method, while I view distributed polling LANs as users of the Harvard Method. I ll explain in a moment.
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Contention-Based LANs
Someday, on a whim, I may send this letter to 3Com fouder Bob Metcalfe: Dear Mr. Metcalfe, We re not sure how to break this to you, but we have discovered that your claim of a patent for the invention of Ethernet must be denied after the fact due to its existence prior to the date of your claim of invention. There is a small freshwater fish, Gymnarchus niloticus, that uses an interesting technique for locating mates, food, and simply communicating with peers. The fish s body is polarized, with a cathode on its head and an anode on its tail. Using special electric cells in its body similar to those employed by the electric eel or the California electric ray, Gymnarchus emits nominal 300-Hz, 10-volt pulses, which reflect back and inform the fish about its immediate environment. In the event that two Gymnarchus are in the same area, their emissions interfere with one another (intersymbol interference ), rendering their detection mechanisms ineffective. But, being the clever creatures that they are, Gymnarchus has designed a technique to deal with this problem. When the two fish hear each other s transmissions, they both immediately stop pulsing. Each fish waits a measurably random period of time while continuing to swim, after which they begin to transmit again, but this time at slightly different frequencies to avoid interference. We hope that you understand that under the circumstances we cannot in good conscience grant this patent. Sincerely yours, U.S. Patent Office I don t think a fish can hold a patent, but if it could, niloticus would hold the patent for a widely used technique called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). Please read on. Perhaps the best-known contention-based medium access scheme is Ethernet, a product developed by 3Com founder and Xerox PARC veteran Bob Metcalfe. In contention-based LANs, devices attached to the network vie for access using the technological equivalent of gladiatorial combat. If it feels good, do it is a good way to describe the manner in which they share access (hence, the Berkeley method). If a station wants
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to transmit, it simply does so, knowing that there exists the possibility that the transmitted signal may collide with the signal generated by another station that transmits at the same time. Even though the transmissions are electrical and are occurring on a LAN, some delay occurs between the time that both stations transmit and the time that they both realize that someone else has transmitted. This realization is called a collision and it results in the destruction of both transmitted messages, as shown in Figure 4-19. In the event that a collision occurs as the result of simultaneous transmission, both stations back off by immediately stopping their transmissions, waiting a random amount of time, and trying again. This technique has the wonderful name of truncated binary exponential backoff. It s one of those phrases you just have to commit to memory because it sounds so good when you casually let it roll off the tongue in conversation. Ultimately, each station will get a turn to transmit, although how long they may have to wait is based on how busy the LAN is. Contentionbased systems are characterized by what is known as unbounded delay, because no upward limit exists on how much delay a station can incur as it waits to use the shared medium. As the LAN gets busier and traffic increases, the number of stations vying for access to the shared medium, which only enables a single station at a time to use it by the way, also goes up, which naturally results in more collisions. Collisions translate into wasted bandwidth, so LANs do everything they can to avoid them.
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