progress bar code in vb.net Figure 5-23 A tokenpassing, distributedpolling LAN in Software

Generator Code 3 of 9 in Software Figure 5-23 A tokenpassing, distributedpolling LAN

Figure 5-23 A tokenpassing, distributedpolling LAN
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sets a bit in the frame to indicate that it has been successfully received, leaves the token set as busy, and transmits the frame on to the next station on the ring. Because the token is still shown as busy, no other station can transmit. Ultimately, the frame returns to the originator, at which time it is recognized as having been received correctly. The station, therefore, removes the frame from the ring, frees the token, and passes it on to the next station (it is not allowed to send again just because it is in possession of a free token). This is where the overall fairness scheme of this technique shines through. The very next station to receive a free token is the station that first indicated a need for it. It will transmit its traffic, after which it will pass the token on to the next station on the ring, followed by the next station, and so on. This technique works very well for situations in which high traffic congestion on the LAN is the norm. Stations will always have to wait for what is called maximum token rotation time, that is, the amount of time it takes for the token to be passed completely around the ring, but they will always get a turn. Thus, for high-congestion situations, a token-passing environment may be better. Traditional token ring LANs operate at two speeds 4 and 16 Mbps. Like Ethernet, these speeds were fine for the limited requirements of text-based LAN traffic that was characteristic of early LAN deployments. However, as demand for bandwidth climbed, the need to eliminate the bottleneck in the token ring domain emerged and fast token ring was born. In 1998, the IEEE 802.5 committee (the oversight committee for token ring technology) announced draft standards for 100 Mbps high-speed token ring (HSTR 802.5t). A number of vendors stepped up to the challenge and began to produce high-speed token ring equipment including Madge Networks and IBM. Gigabit token ring is on the horizon as draft standard 802.5v, and while it may become a full-fledged product, many believe that it may never reach commercial status because of competition from the far less expensive Gigabit Ethernet.
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One other topic that should be covered before we conclude our discussion of LANs is logical design. Two designs for LAN data management have emerged over the years. The first is called peer to peer. In a peer-to-peer LAN, shown in Figure 5-24, all stations on the network operate at the
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Figure 5-24 A peer-to-peer LAN
Figure 5-25 A client-server LAN
same protocol layer, and all have equal access at any time to the shared medium and other resources on the network. They do not have to wait for any kind of permission to transmit; they simply do so. Traditional CSMA/CD is an example of this model. It is simple, easy to implement, and does not require a complex operating system to operate. It does, however, result in a free-for-all approach to networking, and in large networks can result in security and performance problems. The alternative and far more commonly seen technique is called client server. In a client-server LAN, all data and application resources are archived on a designated server that is attached to the LAN and accessible by all stations (user PCs) with appropriate permissions, as illustrated in Figure 5-25. Because the server houses all of the data and application resources, client PCs do not have to be particularly robust. When a user wishes to execute a program, such as a word processor, he or she goes through the same keystrokes he or she would on a standalone PC. In a client-server environment, however, the application
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