Video Quality Factors in Software

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Four factors influence the richness of the video signal. They are frame rate, color resolution, image quality, and spatial resolution.
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Frame rate is a measure of the refresh rate of the actual image painted on the screen. The NTSC video standard is 30 frames per second, meaning that the image is updated 30 times every second. Each frame consists of odd and even fields. The odd field contains the odd-numbered screen lines, while the even field contains the even-numbered screen lines that make up the picture. Television sets paint the screen by first painting the odd field, then the even. They repeat this process at the rate of 60 fields or 30 frames per second. The number 60 is chosen to coincide with the frequency of electricity in the United States. By the same token, PAL relies on a scan rate that is very close to 50 Hz, the standard in Europe. This odd even alternation of fields is called interlaced video. Many monitors, on the other hand, use a technique called progressive scan, in which the entire screen is painted 30 times per second, from top to bottom. This is referred to as noninterlaced video. Noninterlaced systems tend to demonstrate less flicker than their interlaced counterparts. Computers often rely on variable graphics array (VGA) monitors, which are much sharper and clearer than television screens. This is due to the density of the phosphor dots on the inside of the screen face that yield color when struck by the deflected electron beams, as well as a number of other factors. The scan rate of VGA is much higher than that of traditional television and, therefore, can be noninterlaced to reduce screen flicker. Another quality factor is color resolution. Most systems resolve color images using a technique called RGB for the red, green, and blue primary colors. While video does rely on RGB, it also uses a variety of other resolution techniques, including YUV and YIQ. YUV is a color scheme used in both PAL and NTSC. As noted previously, Y represents the luminance component; U and V hue and saturation, respectively make up the color component. Varying the hue and saturation components changes the color. Image quality plays a critical role in the final outcome, and the actual resolution varies by application. For example, the user of a slow scan, desktop, videoconferencing application might be perfectly happy with a half-screen, 15-frame-per-second, eight-bit image, whereas a physician using a medical application might require a full frame, 768-by-484 (the NTSC standard screen size) pixel image, with 24-bit color for perfect accuracy. Both frame rate (frames per second) and color density (bits per pixel) play a key role. Finally, spatial resolution comes into the equation. Many PCs have displays that measure 640-by-480 pixels. This is considerably smaller
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than the NTSC standard of 768-by-484, or even the slightly different European PAL system. In modern systems, the user has great control over the resolution of the image, because he or she can vary the number of pixels on the screen. The pixels seen on the screen are simply memory representations of the information displayed. By selecting more pixels, and therefore better resolution, the graininess of the screen image is reduced. Some VGA adapters, for example, have resolutions as dense as 1024-by-768 pixels. The converse, of course, is also true. By selecting fewer pixels, and therefore increasing the graininess of the image, special effects can be created, such as pixelization or tiling.
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