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When a user turns a cellular phone on, several things happen. First, the phone identifies itself to anyone willing to listen (hopefully, a local cell) by transmitting a unique identification code on a frequency that is designated as a control channel. The control channel is used for the transmission of operations and maintenance messages between cellular telephones and cell sites. If the phone is within the operating area of a cell site, the site registers the presence of the phone within its operating area, notifies the MTSO to which all the cells in an area are connected, and tracks its position based on signal strength as it moves around the cell. When the user wants to place a call, he or she simply pushes the right buttons, which create simulated touch-tone sounds. Once dialing is complete, the user pushes the Send button, which causes the handset to transmit the buffered digits across the control channel to the local cell. The local cell hands the call off to the MTSO. The MTSO analyzes the digits, instructs the handset and the cell to use a particular set of frequencies for the call, and routes the call to the appropriate destination. MTSOs are interconnected to the wireline network and, therefore, can terminate calls at any location, including to another cellular user. If driving while talking, the user may approach a cell boundary. The MTSO, which tracks the relative signal strength of each user as they move among the various cells within its domain, will effect handoff of a call from one cell to another if the user s movement (based on signal strength) indicates that they are approaching a cell boundary.
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The original analog cellular telephony systems relied on a technique called frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) as the access and frequency sharing scheme between mobile users and the cellular network. In FDMA systems, the available spectrum is divided into channels that are assigned to users on demand. One or more of the channels are reserved and set aside as control channels, used to transmit maintenance and operations information between the mobile phone and the network. Each conversation requires two 30 kHz channels one for the forward, or base-to-mobile direction, and one for the reverse, or mobile-tobase station direction. This pairing of channels permits true, full-duplex
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telephony. Most analog systems have since gone by the wayside in favor of the far more popular, efficient, and battery-friendly digital systems. During the developmental battles, two techniques emerged. The first, time-division multiple access, or TDMA, resembles FDMA in that it divides the available frequency spectrum into channels. That, however, is where the resemblance ends. In TDMA each of the analog channels carries telephone calls that are time-division multiplexed that is, they share access to the channel. As in FDMA, a control channel is reserved for communication between the network and mobile users. The biggest advantage that TDMA systems have over FDMA systems is that they support significantly more users. If each channel is divided into four time slots, then the system capacity is quadrupled. And while TDMA electronics are significantly more complex, the fact that they are digital means that they can easily evolve as technology advances. The second digital access technique is called code-division multiple access, or CDMA. CDMA systems are dramatically different from FDMA and TDMA systems in that they do not channelize the available bandwidth instead, they allow all users to access and use the available spectrum simultaneously. This technique is called spread spectrum transmission. Spread-spectrum techniques are described in detail later in this chapter. Not only are digital systems more secure than narrowband technologies, they also support significantly larger numbers of simultaneous users. In fact, whereas FDMA systems support a single user per frequency slot, CDMA systems can support hundreds. Radio-based telephony has enjoyed a wild, tumultuous ride along the way to its position today as a mainstream, foundation-level technology. Starting in the late 1800s with the parallel work of Marconi and Bell, radio and telephony wandered down different paths until fairly recently, when they converged and joined forces, leading to the development of cellular telephony. The story doesn t end with cellular telephony, however. Today, mobile users are clamoring for the ability to extend the reach of LANs, videoconferencing systems, medical image devices, and database access, without having to deal with the restrictions of a copper tether. Developing nations have realized that with cellular technology, telephony infrastructures can be installed in countries in a fraction of the time it takes to install a wired network. In fact, my work in Africa has shown me the degree to which humans demonstrate their ability to innovate in the face of technological challenge. In August 2004, I traveled to Johannesburg, South Africa, to work on a project with one of my clients there. When the
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