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We have now discussed the premises environment and access technologies. The next area we ll examine is transport. Because businesses are rarely housed in a single building, and because their customers are typically scattered across a broad geographical area (particularly multinational customers), there is a growing need for high-speed, reliable, wide-area transport. Wide-area can take on a variety of meanings: For example, a company with multiple offices scattered across the metropolitan expanse of a large city requires interoffice connectivity in order to do business properly. On the other hand, a large multinational with offices and clients in Madrid, San Francisco, Hamburg, and Singapore requires connectivity to ensure that the offices can exchange information on a 24-hour basis. These requirements are satisfied through the proper deployment of wide-area transport technologies. These can be as simple as a dedicated private line circuit or as complex as a virtual installation that relies on ATM for high-quality transport. Dedicated facilities are excellent solutions because they are dedicated. They provide fixed bandwidth that never varies, and guarantee the quality of the transmission service. Because they are dedicated, however, they suffer from two disadvantages: First, they are expensive, and only cost effective when highly utilized. The pricing model for dedicated circuits includes two components: the mileage of the circuit and the bandwidth. The longer the circuit and the faster it is, the more it costs. Second, because they are not switched and are often not redundant because of cost, dedicated facilities pose the potential threat of a prolonged service outage should they fail. Nevertheless, dedicated circuits are popular for certain applications and widely deployed. They include such solutions as T1, which offers 1.544 Mbps of bandwidth; DS3, which offers 44.736 Mbps of bandwidth; and SONET, which offers a wide range of bandwidth from 51.84 Mbps to as much as 40 Gbps. The alternative to a dedicated facility is a switched service, such as frame relay, ATM, or in some cases Gigabit Ethernet. These technologies provide virtual circuits : Instead of dedicating physical facilities, they dedicate logical timeslots to each customer, who then shares access to physical network resources. In the case of frame relay, the service can provide bandwidth as high as DS3, thus providing an ideal replacement technology for lower-speed dedicated circuits. ATM, on the other hand, operates hand in glove with SONET and is Gigabit Ethernet, particularly when deployed in a switched configuration, offering speeds in excess of 1 Gbps. Finally, optical networking is carving out a large niche
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for itself as a bandwidth-rich solution with the potential for inherent quality of service (QoS). We begin our discussion with dedicated private line technologies, otherwise known as point-to-point technologies.
Point-to-Point Technologies
Point-to-point technologies do exactly what their name implies: They connect one point directly with another. For example, it is common for two buildings in a downtown area to be connected by a point-to-point microwave or infrared circuit, because the cost of establishing it is far lower than the cost of putting in physical facilities in a crowded city. Many businesses rely on dedicated, point-to-point optical facilities to interconnect locations, especially businesses that require dedicated bandwidth for high-speed applications. Of course, point-to-point does not necessarily imply high bandwidth; many locations use 1.544 Mbps T1 or 2.048 Mbps E1 facilities for interconnection, and some rely on lowerspeed circuits where higher bandwidth is not required. Dedicated facilities provide bandwidth from as low as 2,400 bits per second to as high as multiple gigabits per second. Analog facilities running at 2,400 bps are not commonly seen but are often used for alarm circuits and telemetry, while circuits operating at 4,800 and 9,600 bps are still used to access interactive, host-based data applications. Higher-speed facilities are usually digital and are often channelized by dedicated multiplexers and shared among a collection of users or by a variety of applications. For example, a high-bandwidth facility that interconnects two corporate locations might be dynamically subdivided into various-sized channels for use by a PBX for voice, a videoconferencing system, and data traffic, as shown in Figure 7-1. Dedicated facilities have the advantage of always being available to the subscriber. They have the disadvantage of being there and accumulating charges whether they are being used or not. For the longest time, dedicated circuits represented the only solution that provided guaranteed bandwidth switched solutions simply weren t designed for the heavy service requirements of graphical and data-intensive traffic. Over time, however, that has changed. A number of switched solutions have emerged in the last few years that provide guaranteed bandwidth and only accumulate charges when they are being used (although some of
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