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ATM Forum Service Classes
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The ATM Forum looks at service definitions slightly differently than the ITU-T does (see Figure 7-11). Instead of the A-B-C-D services, the ATM
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Service
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Descriptors PCR, CDVT PCR, CDVT, SCR, MBS PCR, CDVT, SCR, MBS PCR, CDVT PCR, CDVT, MCR
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Figure 7-11 ATM Forum service definitions
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CBR VBR-R T
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VBRNRT UBR ABR
No Yes
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Transport Technologies
7
Forum categorizes them as real-time and non-real-time services. Under the real-time category, they define constant bit rate services that demand fixed resources with guaranteed availability. They also define real-time, variable bit rate (VBR) service, which provides for statistical multiplexed, variable-bandwidth service allocated on demand. A further subset of real-time VBR is peak-allocated VBR, which guarantees constant loss and delay characteristics for all cells in that flow. Under the non-real-time service class, unspecified bit rate (UBR) is the first service category. UBR is often compared to IP in that it is a best effort delivery scheme in which the network provides whatever bandwidth it has available, with no guarantees made. All recovery functions from lost cells are the responsibility of the end user devices. UBR has two subcategories of its own. The first, non-real-time UBR (NRT-UBR), improves the impacts of cell loss and delay by adding a network resource reservation capability. Available bit rate (ABR), UBR s other subcategory, makes use of feedback information from the far end to manage loss and ensure fair access to and transport across the network. Each of the five classes makes certain guarantees with regard to cell loss, cell delay, and available bandwidth. Furthermore, each of them takes into account descriptors that are characteristic of each service described. These include peak cell rate (PCR), sustained cell rate (SCR), minimum cell rate (MCR), cell delay variation tolerance (CDVT), and burst tolerance (BT).
ATM Forum Specified Services
The ATM Forum has identified a collection of services for which ATM is a suitable, perhaps even desirable, network technology. These include cell relay service (CRS), circuit emulation service (CES), voice and telephony over ATM (VTOA), frame-relay bearer service (FRBS), LAN emulation (LANE), multiprotocol over ATM (MPOA), and a collection of others. CRS is the most basic of the ATM services. It delivers precisely what its name implies: a raw pipe transport mechanism for cell-based data. As such it does not provide any ATM bells and whistles, such as quality of service discrimination; nevertheless, it is the most commonly implemented ATM offering because of its lack of implementation complexity. CES gives service providers the ability to offer a selection of bandwidth levels by varying both the number of cells transmitted per second and the number of bytes contained in each cell.
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Transport Technologies
Transport Technologies
Figure 7-12 Frame-relay bearer service (FRBS) in ATM
VTOA is a service that has yet to be clearly defined. The ability to transport voice calls across an ATM network is a nonissue, given the availability of Class A service. What are not clearly defined, however, are corollary services such as 800/888 calls, 900 service, 911 call handling, enhanced services billing, SS7 signal interconnection, and so on. Until these issues are clearly resolved, ATM-based, feature-rich telephony will not become a mainstream service, but will instead be limited to simple voice and there is a difference. FRBS refers to the ability of ATM to interwork with frame relay. Conceptually, the service implies that an interface standard allows an ATM switch to exchange date with a frame-relay switch, thus allowing for interoperability between frame- and cell-based services. Many manufacturers are taking a slightly different tack, however: They are building switches with soft, chewy cell technology at the core, and surrounding the core with hard, crunchy interface cards to suit the needs of the customer. For example, an ATM switch might have ATM cards on one side to interface with other ATM devices in the network but frame-relay cards on the other side to allow it to communicate with other frame-relay switches, as shown in Figure 7-12. Thus, a single piece of hardware can logically serve as both a cell- and frame-relay switch. This design is becoming more and more common, because it helps to avoid a future rich with forklift upgrades. LANE allows an ATM network to move traffic transparently between two similar LANs but also allows ATM to transparently slip
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