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Optical networking is often viewed as a point-to-point technology. It has achieved such a position of prominence in the last 2 years, however, that it qualifies as a transport option in its own right. Furthermore, optical
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Figure 7-14 Bell photophone transmitter
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switching is fast becoming real and optical routing is not far behind. In this next section, we discuss the development of optical networking, the various technologies that it employs, and the direction it seems to be going in this fast-paced market.
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Early Optical Technology Breakthroughs
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In 1878, 2 years after perfecting his speaking telegraph (which became the telephone), Alexander Graham Bell created a device that transmitted the human voice through the air for distances up to 200 meters. The device, which he called the photophone, used carefully angled mirrors to reflect sunlight onto a diaphragm that was attached to a mouthpiece, as shown in Figure 7-14. At the receiving end (see Figure 7-15), the light was concentrated by a parabolic mirror onto a selenium resistor, which was connected to a battery and speaker. The diaphragm vibrated when struck by the human voice, which in turn caused the intensity of the light striking the resistor to vary. The selenium resistor, then caused the current flow to vary in concert with the varying sunlight, which caused the received sound to come out of the speaker with remarkable fidelity. This represented the birth of optical transmission. Optical transmission in its early days was limited in terms of what it was capable of doing. Consider the following analogy: If you look through a 2-foot-square pane of window glass, it appears clear if the glass is clean, it is virtually invisible. However, if you turn the pane on edge and look through it from edge to edge, the glass appears to be dark green.
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Transport Technologies
Figure 7-15 Bell photophone receiver
Very little light passes from one edge to the other. In this example, you are looking through 2 feet of glass. Imagine trying to pass a high-bandwidth optical signal through 40 or more kilometers of that glass! In 1966, Charles Kao and Charles Hockham at the UK s Standard Telecommunication Laboratory (now part of Nortel Networks) published their seminal work, demonstrating that optical fiber could be used to carry information provided its end-to-end signal loss could be kept below 20 dB per kilometer. Keeping in mind that the decibel scale is logarithmic, 20 dB of loss means that 99 percent of the light would be lost over each kilometer of distance. Only 1 percent would actually reach the receiver and that s a 1-kilometer run. Imagine the loss over today s fiber cables that are hundreds of kilometers long, if 20 dB was the modern performance criterion! Kao and Hockham proved that metallic impurities in the glass such as chromium, vanadium, iron, and copper were the primary cause for such high levels of loss. In response, glass manufacturers rose to the challenge and began to research the creation of ultrapure products. In 1970, Peter Schultz, Robert Maurer, and Donald Keck of Corning Glass Works (now Corning Corporation) announced the development of a glass fiber that offered better attenuation than the recognized 20 dB threshold. Today, fiber manufacturers offer fiber so incredibly pure that 10 percent of the light arrives at a receiver placed 50 kilometers away. Put another way, a fiber with 0.2 dB of measured loss delivers more than 60 percent of the transmitted light over a distance of 10 kilometers. Remember the windowpane example Imagine glass so pure that you could see clearly through a window 10 kilometers thick.
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