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Figure 7-17 Creating a multilayer preform
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Figure 7-18 Preforms, ready to be drawn
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An alternative manufacturing process is called outside vapor deposition (OVD). In the OVD process, the soot is deposited on the surface of a rotating ceramic cylinder in two layers. The first layer is the soot that will become the core; the second layer becomes the cladding. Ultimately, the rod and soot are sintered to create a preform. The ceramic is then removed, leaving behind the fused silica that will become the fiber. There are a number of other techniques for creating the preforms that are used to create fiber, but these are the principal techniques in use today. The next step is to convert the preform into optical fiber.
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To make fiber from a preform, the preform is mounted in a furnace at the top of a tall building called a drawing tower. The bottom of the preform is heated until it has the consistency of taffy, at which time the soft glass is drawn down to form a thin fiber. When it strikes the cooler air outside the furnace, the fiber solidifies. Needless to say, the process is carefully managed to ensure that the thickness of the fiber is precise; microscopes are used to verify the geometry of the fiber. Other stages in the manufacturing process include monitoring processes to check the integrity of the product, a coating process that applies a protective layer, and a take-up stage where the fiber is wound onto reels for later assembly into cables of various types.
Optical Fibers
There are dozens of different types of fiber. Some of them are holdovers from previous generations of optical technology that are still in use and represented the best efforts of technology available at the time; others represent improvements on the general theme or specialized solutions to specific optical transmission challenges. Generally speaking, there are two major types of fiber: multimode, which is the earliest form of optical fiber and is characterized by a large diameter central core, short distance capability, and low bandwidth; and single mode, which has a narrow core and is capable of greater distance and higher bandwidth. There are varieties of each that will be discussed in detail, later in the book. To understand the reason for and philosophy behind the various forms of fiber, it is first necessary to understand the issues that confront transmission engineers who design optical networks. Optical fiber has a number of advantages over copper: It is lightweight, has enormous bandwidth potential, has significantly higher tensile strength, can support many simultaneous channels, and is immune to electromagnetic interference. It does, however, suffer from several disruptive problems that cannot be discounted. The first of these is loss or attenuation, the inevitable weakening of the transmitted signal over distance that has a direct analog in the copper world. Attenuation is typically the result of two subproperties, scattering and absorption, both of which have cumulative effects. The second is dispersion, which is the spreading of the transmitted signal and is analogous to noise.
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Scattering
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Scattering occurs because of impurities or irregularities in the physical makeup of the fiber itself. The best known form of scattering is called Rayleigh Scattering; it is caused by metal ions in the silica matrix and results in light rays being scattered in various directions. Rayleigh Scattering occurs most commonly around wavelengths of 1,000 nm, and is responsible for as much as 90 percent of the total attenuation that occurs in modern optical systems. It occurs when the wavelengths of the light being transmitted are roughly the same size as the physical molecular structures within the silica matrix; thus, short wavelengths are affected by Rayleigh Scattering effects far more than long wavelengths. In fact, it is because of Rayleigh Scattering that the sky appears to be blue: The shorter (blue) wavelengths of light are scattered more than the longer wavelengths of light.
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