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So what does all of this have to do with the high-speed transmission of voice, video, and data A lot, as it turns out. Understanding where attenuation and dispersion problems occur helps optical design engineers determine the best wavelengths at which to transmit information, taking into account distance, type of fiber, and other factors that can potentially affect the integrity of the transmitted signal. Consider the graph shown in Figure 7-21. It depicts the optical transmission domain, as well as the areas where problems arise. Attenuation (dB/km) is shown on the Y-axis; Wavelength (nm) is shown on the X-axis.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Figure 7-21 The optical transmission domain
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First of all, note that there are four transmission windows in the diagram. The first one is at approximately 850 nm, the second at 1,310 nm, the third at 1,550 nm, and the fourth at 1,625 nm; the last two are labeled C and L band, respectively. The 850 nm band was the first to be used because of its adherence to the wavelength at which the original LED technology operated. The second window at 1,310 nm enjoys low dispersion; this is where dispersion effects are minimized. At 1,550 nm, the so-called C-Band, emerges as the ideal wavelength at which to operate long-haul systems and systems upon which dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) has been deployed because (1) loss is minimized in this region, and (2) dispersion minimums can be shifted here. The relatively new L-Band has enjoyed some early success as the next effective operating window. Notice also that Rayleigh Scattering is shown to occur at or around 1,000 nm, while hydroxyl absorption by water occurs at 1,240 and 1,390 nm. Needless to say, network designers would be well-served to avoid transmitting at any of the points on the graph where Rayleigh Scattering, high degrees of loss, or hydroxyl absorption have the greatest degree of impact. Notice also that dispersion, shown by the lower line, is at a minimum point in the second window, while loss, shown by the upper line, drops to a minimum point in the third window. In fact, dispersion is minimized in traditional single-mode fiber at 1,310 nm, while loss is at minimums at 1,550 nm. So the obvious question becomes this: Which one do you want to minimize loss or dispersion Luckily, this choice no longer has to be made. Today, dispersion-shifted fibers (DSF) have become common. By modifying the manufacturing
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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process, engineers can shift the point at which minimum dispersion occurs from 1,310 nm to 1,550 nm, causing it to coincide with the minimum loss point such that loss and dispersion occur at the same wavelength. Unfortunately, while this fixed one problem, it created a new and potentially serious alternative problem. DWDM has become a mainstay technology for multiplying the available bandwidth in optical systems. When DWDM is deployed over dispersion-shifted fiber, serious nonlinearities occur at the zero dispersion point, which effectively destroy the DWDM signal. Think about it: DWDM relies on the ability to channelize the available bandwidth of the optical infrastructure and maintain some degree of separation between the channels. If dispersion is minimized in the 1,559 nm window, then the channels will effectively overlay each other in DWDM systems. Specifically, a problem called fourwave mixing creates sidebands that interfere with the DWDM channels, destroying their integrity. In response, fiber manufacturers have created nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF) that lowers the dispersion point to near zero and makes it occur just outside of the 1,550 nm window. This eliminates the nonlinear four-wave mixing problem.
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