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A classic business quote, imminently applicable to the optical networking world, observes in its success lie the seeds of its own destruction. As the marketplace clamors for longer transmission distances with minimal amplification, more wavelengths per fiber, higher bit rates, and increased signal power, a rather ugly collection of transmission impairments, known as fiber nonlinearities, rises to challenge attempts to make them happen. These impairments go far beyond the simple concerns brought about by loss and dispersion; they represent a significant performance barrier. The special relationship that exists between transmission power and the refractive index of the medium gives rise to four service-affecting optical nonlinearities: self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), four-wave mixing (FWM), and intermodulation.
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Self-Phase Modulation (SPM)
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When SPM occurs, chromatic dispersion kicks in to create something of a technological double whammy. As the light pulse moves down the fiber, its leading edge increases the refractive index of the core, which causes
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a shift toward the longer wavelength, blue end of the spectrum. The trailing edge, on the other hand, decreases the refractive index of the core, causing a shift toward the shorter wavelength, red end of the spectrum. This causes an overall spreading or smearing of the transmitted signal a phenomenon known as chirp. It occurs in fiber systems that transmit a single pulse down the fiber and is proportional to the amount of chromatic dispersion in the fiber: the more chromatic dispersion, the more SPM. It is counteracted with the use of large effective area fibers.
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Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM)
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When multiple optical signals travel down the same fiber core, they both change the refractive index in direct proportion to their individual power levels. If the signals happen to cross, they will distort each other. While XPM is similar to SPM, there is one significant difference: While selfphase modulation is directly affected by chromatic dispersion, crossphase modulation is only minimally affected by it. Large effective area fibers can reduce the impact of XPM.
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Four-Wave Mixing (FWM)
FWM mixing is the most serious of the power/refractive index-induced nonlinearities today because it has a catastrophic effect on DWDMenhanced systems. Because the refractive index of fiber is nonlinear and because multiple optical signals travel down the fiber in DWDM systems, a phenomenon known as third-order distortion can occur that seriously affects multichannel transmission systems. Third-order distortion causes harmonics to be created in large numbers that have the annoying habit of occurring where the actual signals are, resulting in their obliteration. Four-wave mixing is directly related to DWDM. In DWDM fiber systems, multiple simultaneous optical signals are transmitted across an optical span. They are separated on an ITU-blessed standard transmission grid by as much as 100 GHz (although most manufacturers today have reduced that to 50 GHz or less). This separation ensures that they do not interfere with each other. Consider now the effect of dispersion-shifted fiber on DWDM systems. In DSF, signal transmission is moved to the 1,550 nm band to ensure that dispersion and loss are both minimized within the same window. However, minimal dispersion has a rather severe, unintended
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consequence when it occurs in concert with DWDM: Because it reduces dispersion to near zero, it also prevents multichannel systems from existing because it does not allow proper channel spacing. Four-wave mixing, then, becomes a serious problem. Several things can reduce the impact of FWM. As the dispersion in the fiber drops, the degree of four-wave mixing increases dramatically. In fact, it is worst at the zero-dispersion point. Thus, the intentional inclusion of a small amount of chromatic dispersion actually helps to reduce the effects of FWM. For this reason, fiber manufacturers sell NZDSF, which moves the dispersion point to a point near the zero point, thus ensuring that a small amount of dispersion creeps in to protect against FWM problems. Another factor that can minimize the impact of FWM is to widen the spacing between DWDM channels. This, of course, reduces the efficiency of the fiber by reducing the total number of available channels and, therefore, is not a popular solution, particularly since the trend in the industry is to move toward narrower channel spacing as a way to increase the total number of available channels. Already, several vendors have announced spacing as narrow as 5 GHz. Finally, large effective area fibers tend to suffer less from the effects of FWM.
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