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In the same way that cross-phase modulation results from interference between multiple simultaneous signals, intermodulation causes secondary frequencies to be created that are cross-products of the original signals being transmitted. Large effective area fibers can alleviate the symptoms of intermodulation.
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Scattering within the silica matrix causes the second major impairment phenomenon. Two significant nonlinearities result: Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS).
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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SBS is a power-related phenomenon. As long as the power level of a transmitted optical signal remains below a certain threshold, usually on the order of three milliwatts, SBS is not a problem. The threshold is directly proportional to the fiber s effective area, and because dispersionshifted fibers typically have smaller effective areas, they have lower thresholds. The threshold is also proportional to the width of the originating laser pulse: As the pulse gets wider, the threshold goes up. Thus, steps are often taken through a variety of techniques to artificially broaden the laser pulse. This can raise the threshold significantly, to as high as 40 milliwatts. SBS is caused by the interaction of the optical signal moving down the fiber with the acoustic vibration of the silica matrix that makes up the fiber. As the silica matrix resonates, it causes some of the signal to be reflected back toward the source of the signal, resulting in noise, signal degradation, and a reduction of overall bit rate in the system. As the power of the signal increases beyond the threshold, more of the signal is reflected, resulting in a multiplication of the initial problem. It is interesting to note that there are actually two forms of Brillouin Scattering. When (sorry, a little more physics) electric fields that oscillate in time within an optical fiber interact with the natural acoustic resonance of the fiber material itself, the result is a tendency to backscatter light as it passes through the material. This is called Brillouin Scattering. If, however, the electric fields are caused by the optical signal itself, the signal is seen to cause the phenomenon; this is called Stimulated Brillouin Scattering. To summarize: Because of backscattering, SBS reduces the amount of light that actually reaches the receiver and causes noise impairments. The problem increases quickly above the threshold and has a more deleterious impact on longer wavelengths of light. One additional fact: In-line optical amplifiers such as erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) add to the problem significantly. If there are four optical amplifiers along an optical span, the threshold will drop by a factor of four. Solutions to SBS include the use of wider-pulse lasers and larger effective area fibers.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS)
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SRS is something of a power-based crosstalk problem. In SRS, highpower, short-wavelength channels tend to bleed power into longer wavelength, lower power channels. It occurs when a light pulse moving down the fiber interacts with the crystalline matrix of the silica, causing the light to (1) be backscattered and (2) shift the wavelength of the pulse slightly. Whereas SBS is a backward-scattering phenomenon, SRS is a two-way phenomenon, causing both backscattering and a wavelength shift. The result is crosstalk between adjacent channels. The good news is that SRS occurs at a much higher power level close to a watt. Furthermore, it can be effectively reduced through the use of large effective area fibers.
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