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It is always good to go back and review why we care about such things as dispersion-shifting and absorption issues. Remember that the key to
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Transport Technologies
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keeping the cost of the network down is to reduce maintenance and the need to add hardware or additional fiber when bandwidth gets tight. DWDM, discussed in detail later, offers an elegant and relatively simple solution to the problem of the cost of bandwidth. However, its use is not without cost. Multiwavelength systems will not operate effectively over dispersion-shifted fiber because of dramatic nonlinearities. So if DWDM is to be used, NZDSF must be deployed.
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In this section we have examined the history of optical technology and the technology itself, focusing on the three key components within an optical network: the light emitter, the transport medium, and the receiver. We also discussed the various forms of transmission impairment that can occur in optical systems and the steps that have been taken to overcome them. The result of all this is that optical fiber, once heralded as a neartechnological miracle because it only lost 99 percent of its signal strength when transmitted over an entire kilometer, has become the standard medium for transmission of high-bandwidth signals over great distances. Optical amplification now serves as an augmentation to traditional regenerated systems, allowing for the elimination of the optical-toelectrical conversion that must take place in copper systems. The result of all this is an extremely efficient transmission system that has the ability to play a role in virtually any network design in existence today.
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Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
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When high-speed transport systems such as SONET and SDH were first introduced, the bandwidth that they made possible was unheard of. The early systems that operated at OC-3/STM-1 levels (155.52 Mbps) provided volumes of bandwidth that were almost unimaginable. As the technology advanced to higher levels, the market followed Say s Law, creating demand for the ever more available volumes of bandwidth. There were limits, however; today, OC-48/STM-16 (2.5 Gbps) is extremely popular,
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Transport Technologies
Transport Technologies
but OC-192/STM-64 (10 Gbps) represents the practical upper limit of SONET s and SDH s transmission capabilities given the limitations of existing time-division multiplexing technology. The alternative is to simply multiply the channel count and that s where WDM comes into play. WDM is really nothing more than frequency-division multiplexing, albeit at very high frequencies. The ITU has standardized a channel separation grid that centers around 193.1 terahertz (THz), ranging from 191.1 THz to 196.5 THz. Channels on the grid are technically separated by 100 GHz, but many industry players today are using 50 GHz separation. The majority of WDM systems operate in the C-Band (third window, 1,550 nm), which allows for close placement of channels and the reliance on EDFAs to improve signal strength. Older systems, which spaced the channels 200 GHz (1.6 nm) apart, were referred to simply as WDM systems; the newer systems are referred to as Dense WDM systems because of their tighter channel spacing. Modern systems routinely pack forty 10 Gbps channels across a single fiber, for an aggregate bit rate of 400 Gbps.
How DWDM Works
As Figure 7-24 illustrates, a WDM system consists of multiple input lasers, an ingress multiplexer, a transport fiber, an egress multiplexer, and of course, customer receiving devices. If the system has eight channels, such as the one shown in the diagram, it has eight lasers and eight receivers. The channels are separated by 100 GHz to avoid fiber nonlinearities, or closer if the system supports the 50 GHz spacing. Each channel, sometimes referred to as a lambda (l, the Greek letter and universal symbol used to represent wavelength), is individually modulated, and ideally, the signal strengths of the channels should be close to one another. Generally speaking, this is not a problem, because in DWDM
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